Information on EC 3.1.2.2 - palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
3.1.2.2
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
palmitoyl-CoA + H2O = CoA + palmitate
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of thioester
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
acyl-CoA hydrolysis
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bacterial bioluminescence
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-
cutin biosynthesis
-
-
oleate biosynthesis II (animals and fungi)
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-
palmitate biosynthesis I (animals and fungi)
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sporopollenin precursors biosynthesis
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stearate biosynthesis I (animals and fungi)
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stearate biosynthesis III (fungi)
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suberin monomers biosynthesis
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Fatty acid elongation
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Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
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Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase
Also hydrolyses CoA thioesters of other long-chain fatty acids.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
37270-64-7
EC 3.1.2.2
9025-87-0
-
9025-87-0
EC 3.1.2.20
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
4 isoforms of different pI and MW; Peking or mallard duck
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
psychrophilic antarctic yeast, strain A19; psychrophilic yeast, strain A19
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
beagle
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Z, dark-grown
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Z, dark-grown
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
crab eating
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene YJR019C, expression is inducible by oleate; should be renamed as PTE I
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; type II thioesterase
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
thioesterase II, gene pikAV
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2-methylstearoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + 2-methylstearate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl acetate + H2O
2-nitrophenol + acetate
show the reaction diagram
synthetic substrate
-
-
?
2-trans-decenoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + 2-trans-decenoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-CoA + H2O
CoA + 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutarate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + H2O
CoA + 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA + H2O
CoA + 3-hydroxybutanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction at 4.3% the rate of acetoacetyl-CoA hydrolysis
-
-
?
3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA + H2O
CoA + 3-hydroxybutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxydecanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + 3-hydroxydecanoate
show the reaction diagram
3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + 3-hydroxyhexadecanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxypalmitoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + 3-hydroxypalmitate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
3-oxodecanyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + 3-oxodecanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + 4,8-dimethylnonanoate
show the reaction diagram
4-nitrophenyl acetate + H2O
4-nitrophenol + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl butyrate + H2O
4-nitrophenol + butyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl decanoate + H2O
4-nitrophenol + decanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetoacetyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + acetoacetate
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + acetate
show the reaction diagram
acyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + a carboxylate
show the reaction diagram
arachidonoyl-CoA + H2O
arachidonic acid + CoA
show the reaction diagram
arachidonoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + arachidonate
show the reaction diagram
arachidoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + arachidate
show the reaction diagram
benzoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + benzoate
show the reaction diagram
butyryl-CoA + H2O
butanoate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
butyryl-[acyl-carrier protein] + H2O
butanoate + acyl-carrier protein
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + chenodeoxycholate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + chenodeoxycholoate
show the reaction diagram
cholesteryl oleate + H2O
cholesterol + oleate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
choloyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + cholate
show the reaction diagram
best substrate
-
?
choloyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + choloate
show the reaction diagram
clofibroyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + clofibrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
crotonyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + crotonate
show the reaction diagram
decanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + decanoate
show the reaction diagram
dipalmitoylglycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-palmitoyl carnitine + H2O
palmitate + DL-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
docosahexanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + docosahexanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dodecanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + dodecanoate
show the reaction diagram
eicosanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + eicosanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
eicosanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + eicosanoic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
eicosapentaenoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + eicosapentaenoate
show the reaction diagram
gamma-linolenoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + gamma-linolenoate
show the reaction diagram
hexadecanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + hexadecanoate
show the reaction diagram
hexanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + hexanoate
show the reaction diagram
hexanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + n-hexanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
lauroyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + laurate
show the reaction diagram
linolenoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + linolenoate
show the reaction diagram
linoleoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + linoleate
show the reaction diagram
linoleoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + linoleoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
malonyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + malonate
show the reaction diagram
malonyl-CoA + H2O
malonate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
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-
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monolauroyl sucrose + H2O
lauroate + sucrose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
monoolein + H2O
oleate + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
monopalmitoyl sucrose + H2O
palmitate + sucrose
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
myristoleoyl-CoA + H2O
myristoleoate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
myristoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + myristate
show the reaction diagram
n-butyryl-CoA + H2O
CoA + n-butanoate
show the reaction diagram
N-carbobenzoxy-L-tyrosine p-nitrophenyl ester + H2O
N-carbobenzoxy-L-tyrosine + p-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
octadecanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + octadecanoate
show the reaction diagram
octanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + octanoate
show the reaction diagram
oleoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + oleate
show the reaction diagram
oleoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + oleic acid
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
oleyl pantetheine + H2O
oleate + pantetheine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
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?
oleyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + H2O
oleate + acyl-carrier protein
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
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?
p-nitrophenyl butyrate + H2O
p-nitrophenol + butanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
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p-nitrophenyl butyrate + H2O
p-nitrophenol + butyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoleoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + palmitoleate
show the reaction diagram
palmitoleoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + palmitoleic acid
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
palmitoleoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + palmitoleoate
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + palmitate
show the reaction diagram
Palmitoyl-CoA + H2O
Palmitate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
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-
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-
polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propionyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + propionate
show the reaction diagram
propionyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + H2O
propionate + acyl-carrier protein
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
prostaglandin F2alpha + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
prostaglandin F2alpha-CoA + H2O
prostaglandin F2alpha + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + stearate
show the reaction diagram
succinyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + succinate
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction at 33% the rate of acetoacetyl-CoA hydrolysis
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-
?
tetradecanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + tetradecanoate
show the reaction diagram
tetradecylthioacetyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + tetradecylthioacetate
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate
-
-
?
tetradecylthiopropionyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + tetradecylthiopropionate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trihydroxycoprostanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + trihydroxycoprostanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
tripalmitoylglycerol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
vaccenoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + vaccenoate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + 4,8-dimethylnonanoate
show the reaction diagram
acyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + a carboxylate
show the reaction diagram
arachidonoyl-CoA + H2O
arachidonic acid + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is involved in steroidogenesis, overview
-
?
arachidonoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + arachidonate
show the reaction diagram
hexadecanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + hexadecanoate
show the reaction diagram
myristoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + myristate
show the reaction diagram
-
highly preferred substrate, temperature regulated activity, mechanism
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?
oleoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + oleate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoleoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + palmitoleate
show the reaction diagram
Q8GYW7
activity of ACH2 is not linked to fatty acid oxidation
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + palmitate
show the reaction diagram
stearoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + stearate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
tetradecanoyl-CoA + H2O
CoA + tetradecanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine
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competitive inhibition at low concentration of palmitoyl-CoA
1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide
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23% inhibition at 10 mM
13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid
-
only the mitochondrial enzyme form is inhibited, not the cytosolic one
2,2-dinitrofluorobenzene
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2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate
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reduced activity in microsomes and mitochondria
3-dithiacarboxylic acid
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palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase activity, L-fraction and peroxisomes, especially of 3-thia fatty acids treated rats
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3-O-methylmannose polysaccharide
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4-Pentenoate
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reduced activity in microsomes
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate)
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6-O-methylglucose polysaccharide
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Acetyl salicylate
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reduced activity in microsomes
acetyl-CoA
acyl-CoA
albumin
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-
AMP
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acetyl-CoA as substrate
beta-hydroxybutyrate
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moderately inhibits the microsomal enzyme activity
bezafibrate
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bis-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate
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bovine serum albumin
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cardiolipin
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citrate
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Clofibrate
Co2+
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slightly inhibits the mitochondrial enzyme
CoA
intraperoxisomal regulatory role
CoA-S-S-CoA
-
competitive to acetyl-CoA; i.e. oxidized CoA, additive with NADH, kinetics
CoASH
D-carnitine
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inhibits at concentrations over 6 mM
diethyldicarbonate
diisopropylfluorophosphate
Dodecanoyl-CoA
-
substrate inhibition
DTNB
above 0.3 mM; above 0.3 mM
EDTA
-
inhibits the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme at concentrations of 0.5 mM
FAD
-
slightly inhibits the microsomal enzyme
FMN
-
inhibits the mitochondrial-matrix enzyme activity
fumarate
-
inhibits the mitochondrial-matrix enzyme activity
gemfibrozil
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GTP
-
acetyl-CoA as substrate
hexadecanoyl-CoA
-
substrate inhibition
Ibuprofen
-
reduced activity in microsomes and mitochondria
iodoacetamide
L-carnitine
-
inhibits at concentrations over 6 mM
L-palmitoyl carnitine
lysophosphatidic acid
-
-
lysophosphatidylcholine
lysophosphatidylethanolamine
-
weakly inhibitory
lysophosphatidylinositol
lysophosphatidylserine
-
weakly inhibitory
malate
-
weak
methyl methanethiosulfonate
-
slight inhibition
methylene blue
-
photooxidation
myristoyl-CoA
-
substrate inhibition, in vivo 28fold increased substrate concentration at 20C leads to reduced enzyme activity
N-ethylmaleimide
NAD+
-
inhibits the mitochondrial-matrix enzyme
NGDA
-
isozymes CTE-I and MTE-I
Ni2+
-
-
nicotinic acid
-
inhibits the mitochondrial-matrix enzyme activity
nordihydroguaiaretic acid
-
inhibition of acyl-CoA thioesterase and mitochondrial arachidonic acid-related thioesterase
O,O-Diethyl-O-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)-phosphate
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-
O,O-Diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl)-phosphate
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O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl)-phosphorothionate
-
i.e. Chloropyrifos
O,O-Dimethyl-O-(2,4,5-trichloro-1-phenyl)-phosphate
-
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O,O-Dimethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl)-phosphate
-
i.e. Fospirate
octylglucoside
-
50% inhibition at 0.3%
octylglycoside
-
-
-
oleic acid
orlistat
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
palmitic acid
-
1 mM inhibits by 30%
Pb2+
-
slightly inhibits the mitochondrial enzyme
sodium deoxycholate
tetradecanoyl-CoA
-
substrate inhibition
Triton X-100
Triton X-35
-
-
-
Triton X-405
-
-
unsaturated fatty acids
-
-
-
Valproate
-
reduced activity in microsomes and mitochondria
additional information
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
0.5 mM stimulates acylation 3-9fold
3-hydroxybutyrate
-
stimulates the mitochondrial-matrix enzyme activity
3-thia fatty acids
-
i.e. tetradecylthioacetic acid and 3-dithiacarboxylic acid; stimulates palmitoyl-CoA, tetradecylthioacetyl-CoA and tetradecylthiopropionyl-CoA hydrolase activities in cytosol, mitochondrion and peroxisome, overview
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3-thiadicarboxylic acid
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Acetylsalicylic acid
-
-
ACTH
-
ADP
-
stimulates the microsomal activity
ATP
-
stimulates the microsomal activity
bovine serum albumin
-
citrate
-
-
Clofibrate
cyanide
-
-
cysteine
-
-
di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
dithiothreitol
EDTA
-
stimulates the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme above 2 mM
Elongation factor
-
chain elongation
-
ethyl p-chlorophenoxyisobutyrate
-
-
FAD
-
stimulates the activity of the mitochondrial-matrix enzyme up to 0.4 mM
fish oil
-
partially hydrogenated, hydrolase activity reaches maximum after administration of the dietary oil for 6.5 days
-
FMN
-
stimulates the microsomal activity
fumarate
-
stimulates the microsomal activity
hexadecanol
-
activation, only with acyl-CoA of more than C-8 as substrates
isopropyl thiogalactoside
-
isoproterenol
-
stimulates enzyme expression, can be blocked by specific beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists, e.g. actinomycin D
L-carnitine
-
activates at low concentrations
linoleic acid
-
both conjugated and gamma-linoleic acid, increase activity
Lipids
-
activate
-
lysophosphatidylcholine
-
-
lysophosphatidylethanolamine
-
-
malate
-
stimulates the mitochondrial-matrix enzyme activity
monoethylhexylphthalate
NAD+
-
stimulates the microsomal activity
niadenate
-
-
nicotinic acid
oleate
induces enzyme expression in peroxisomes
peroxisome proliferator WY-14,643
induction of enzyme expression, dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
-
induction of the isozymes in the liver
-
Phenobarbital
-
2-3fold enhancement of activity
phosphatidylcholine