Information on EC 2.4.1.38 - beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase

Word Map on EC 2.4.1.38
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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.4.1.38
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide = UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hexosyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
ABH and Lewis epitopes biosynthesis from type 2 precursor disaccharide
-
-
biosynthesis of Lewis epitopes (H. pylori)
-
-
Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - keratan sulfate
-
-
i antigen and I antigen biosynthesis
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
N-Glycan biosynthesis
-
-
terminal O-glycans residues modification (via type 2 precursor disaccharide)
-
-
Various types of N-glycan biosynthesis
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide 4-beta-galactosyltransferase
Terminal N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl residues in polysaccharides, glycoproteins and glycopeptides can act as acceptor. High activity is shown towards such residues in branched-chain polysaccharides when these are linked by beta-1,6-links to galactose residues; lower activity towards residues linked to galactose by beta-1,3-links. A component of EC 2.4.1.22 (lactose synthase).
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
37237-43-7
-
9054-94-8
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment; strain UR6
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment; strain UR6
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tammar wallaby
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC 31151
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
-
the isoform beta4GalT6 plays a role as lactosylceramide synthase, while isoform beta4GalT5 acts as a main enzyme for lactosylceramide biosynthesis
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
UDP-Gal + 4-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-4-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside
UDP + Gal-beta-S-1,4-GlcNAcpNP
show the reaction diagram
-
HP0826 catalyzes the synthesis of the thiodisaccharide Gal-beta-S-1,4-GlcNAcpNP as well as Gal-beta-1,4-Man-pNP with total regio- and stereoselectivity, overview
-
-
?
UDP-Gal + 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-mannopyranoside
UDP + Gal-beta-1,4-Man-pNP
show the reaction diagram
UDP-Gal + 4-nitrophenyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)3-deoxy-3-fluoro-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + beta-D-galactopyranosyl-1,4-xylopyranosyl-1-O-4-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 6-deoxy-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)6-deoxy-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 6-thio-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)6-thio-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + benzyl 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside
UDP + benzyl 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + chitotriose
?
show the reaction diagram
GlcNAcbeta1,4-GlcNAcbeta1,4-GlcNAc
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + colchicoside
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-colchicoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + ginsenoside Rg1
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-ginsenoside Rg1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + Glc-NAcbeta1-3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)GlcNAcbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
?
show the reaction diagram
an N-linked biantennary oligosaccharide chain, one antenna is attached to the 3-hydroxyl-(1,2-1,3-arm) group of mannose, which is beta-1,4-linked to an N-linked chitobiose, attached to the aspargine residue of a protein
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6 (GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3)Man
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6-Manbeta-OR
?
show the reaction diagram
an N-linked biantennary oligosaccharide chain, one antenna is attached to the 3-hydroxyl-(1,2-1,6-arm) group of mannose, which is beta-1,4-linked to an N-linked chitobiose, attached to the aspargine residue of a protein
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta1,4-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
?
show the reaction diagram
an N-linked biantennary oligosaccharide chain, one antenna is attached to the 3-hydroxyl-(1,4-1,3-arm) group of mannose, which is beta-1,4-linked to an N-linked chitobiose, attached to the aspargine residue of a protein
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + lactose
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-lactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + laminin
UDP + beta-1,4-D-galactosyl-laminin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucoside
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-1-O-methyl-2-deoxy-2-acetylamido-beta-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
-
76% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + methyl 2-bromo-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucoside
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-1-O-methyl-2-bromo-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
75% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + methyl 2-deoxy-2-benzamido-beta-D-glucoside
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-1-O-methyl-2-deoxy-2-benzamido-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
16% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-4-toluenesulfonyl-GlcN
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)N-4-toluenesulfonyl-GlcN
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
for the binding of GlcNAc in the monosaccharide binding site of beta4Gal-T1, there is a hydrophobic N-acetyl group-binding pocket formed by residues Arg359, Phe360, and Ile363 from the ?-helix region in the closed conformation of the long loop, the sugar donor specificity of beta4Gal-T1 toward galactose is determined by the Tyr residue at position 289 in the binding pocket. The two proteins beta4Gal-T1 and alpha-lactalbukin crystallize together as a complex only in the presence of either donor substrate or acceptor Glc or GlcNAc to form lactose synthase. The specificity of the sugar donor is generally determined by a few residues in the sugar-nucleotide binding pocket. The conformational change in beta4Gal-T1 also creates the binding site for a mammary gland-specific protein, alpha-lactalbumin, which changes the acceptor specificity of the enzyme toward glucose to synthesize lactose during lactation
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-methanesulfonyl-GlcN
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)N-methanesulfonyl-GlcN
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-trifluoroacetyl-GlcN
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)N-trifluoroacetyl-GlcN
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminide
?
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + T(GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TTVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + T(GlcNAcbeta6GalNAcbeta)TTVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + T(GlcNAcbeta6[GlcNAcbeta3]GalNAcbeta)TTVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + T-(GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TTVTPTPTG
UDP + T-(Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TTVTPTPTG
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 7.0, 0.5 mM, 40% activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT(GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT(GlcNAcbeta6GalNAcbeta)TVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT(GlcNAcbeta6[GlcNAcbeta3]GalNAcbeta)TVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT-(GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TVTP(GGA)TPTG
UDP + TT-(Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TVTP(GGA)TPTG
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 7.0, 0.5 mM, 25% activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT-(GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TVTPTPTG
UDP + TT-(Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TVTPTPTG
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + TTTV (GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTV(GlcNAcbeta6GalNAcbeta)TPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTV(GlcNAcbeta6[GlcNAcbeta3]GalNAcbeta)TPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTP(GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTP(GlcNAcbeta6GalNAcbeta)TPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTP-(GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TPTG
UDP + TTTVTP-(Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TPTG
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 7.0, 0.5 mM, 20% activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTP-(GlcNAcbeta1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TG
UDP + TTTVTP-(Galbeta-1-4GlcNAcbeta1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TG
show the reaction diagram
pH 7.0, 0.2 mM, 2% activity in A549 cells, 14% activity in H292 cells relative to benzyl 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTPTP(GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTPTP(GlcNAcbeta6[GlcNAcbeta3]GalNAcbeta)TG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-GalNAc + GlcNAc
?
show the reaction diagram
UDP-glucose + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + 4-O-beta-D-galactosyl-beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
1.5% activity with UDO-glucose compared to UDP-galactose
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + beta-D-glucosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction with 0.3% efficiency. R228K mutation results in a 15-fold higher glucosyltransferase activity, which is further enhanced by alpha-lactalbumin to nearly 25% of the galactosyltransferase activity of the wild type
-
-
?
UDP-glucuronic acid + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-xylose + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + 2-acetamido-N-(L-aspart-4-oyl)-1,2-dideoxy-beta-glucoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
65% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + 3-acetamido-3-deoxy-D-xylose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + agalacto-ovomucoid
?
show the reaction diagram
-
65% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + agalacto-poly-N-acetyllactosamine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + agalactokeratan
?
show the reaction diagram
-
agalactokeratan from bovine cornea and nasal septum, at 5% and 13% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + alpha1-acid glycoprotein
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + asialo agalacto alpha1 acid glycoprotein
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + asialo-agalacto-alpha1-glycoprotein
?
show the reaction diagram
-
42% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + asialo-agalacto-transferrin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transfer of galactose to N-acetylglucosamine residues of Asn-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins in a beta1-4linkage
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + asialogalactofetuin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + chitobiose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + chitotriose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + degalactosylated fetuin
UDP + fetuin containing beta-1,4-galactose linkages
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + di-acetylchitobiose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
54% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + fetuin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + GlcNAcbeta-S-p-NP
UDP + Galbeta1-4 GlcNAcbeta-S-p-NP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + GlcNAcbeta1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-2)Manalpha1-3Manbeta1-O(CH2)8COOCH2-mNP
UDP + Galbeta1-4 GlcNAcbeta1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-2)Manalpha1-3Manbeta1-O(CH2)8COOCH2-mNP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + immunoglobulin heavy chain
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + lacto-N-triaosylceramide
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + lacto-N-triose II
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetamido-3-deoxy-D-glucose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-glycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
galactose is transferred much faster to the N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-branch than to the N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-branch
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-galactose
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-galactose
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + ovalbumin
?
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + ovomucoid
UDP + ovomucoid with beta-1,4-bound galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + p-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucoside
?
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + tri-N-acetylchitotriose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
64% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + UDPglucose
UDP + lactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + laminin
UDP + beta-1,4-D-galactosyl-laminin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Co2+
-
activation at 14.9% of the activity with Mn2+
Zn2+
-
activation at 9.2% of the activity with Mn2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,6-dithio-N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
45% inhibition at 1.0 mM
1-thio-N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
uncompetitive, complete inhibition at 1.0 mM, 85% inhibition at 0.2 mM
1-thioGlcNAcbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
91% inhibition at 1.0 mM
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-2,4-dideoxy-4-fluoro-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-2,4-dideoxy-4-methoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-2,4-dideoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-4-amino-2,4-dideoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-Dgalactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-4-azido-2,4-dideoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-Dgalactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-3-fluoro-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-3-methoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-Dgalactopyranoside
-
-
4-methylumbelliferyl 4-deoxy-4-fluoro-beta-D-xylopyranoside
-
-
4-methylumbelliferyl 4-deoxy-beta-D-xylopyranoside
-
-
5'-alpha-D-galactopryanosyl-diphospho-5-(1H-indol-4-yl)-uridine
-
-
5'-alpha-D-galactopryanosyl-diphospho-5-[5-({[1-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino}methyl)thiophene-2-yl]uridine
-
-
5-(5-formylthien-2-yl)-UDP-alpha-D-galactose
-
-
-
5-(5-formylthien-2-yl)-uridine
-
-
-
5-(indol-4-yl)-uridine
-
-
5-[5-({[1-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino}methyl)thiophene-2-yl]uridine
-
-
6-thio-N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
19% inhibition at 1.0 mM
alpha-lactalbumin
-
alpha1-Acid glycoprotein
-
above 1.4 mM with respect to acceptor sites
-
ammonium
enzyme activity is decreased in ammonium treated cell culture
Glc-NAcbeta1-3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol
-
-
GlcNAcbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
92% inhibition at 1.0 mM
N-acetylglucosamine
N-Acetylimidazole
-
activity is partially restored by treatment with hydroxylamine
N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
87% inhibition at 1.0 mM
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
p-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucoside
-
competitively inhibits the transfer of galactose to glycoprotein substrates
-
phosphatidic acid
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
-
phosphatidylglycerol
-
-
phosphatidylserine
-
-
poly(L-Glu)
-
-
UMP
-
competitively inhibits the transfer of galactose to glycoprotein substrates
uridine 5'-(6-amino-(2-[(7-bromomethyl-2-naphthyl)methoxycarbonylmethoxy]ethoxy)acetyl-6-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate
-
irreversible, modifies residue Trp310
uridine 5'-(6-amino-(2-[(7-methyl-2-naphthyl)methoxycarbonylmethoxy]ethoxy)acetyl-6-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate
-
-
uridine 5'-(6-O-[10-(2-naphthyl)-3,6,9-trioxadecanyl]-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)diphosphate
-
competitive versus UDP-Gal, blocks acceptor substrate binding by the enzyme in presence of Mn2+
additional information
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
alpha-lactalbumin
-
dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine
dioleoylphosphatidylcholine
-
activation
dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine
-
activation
Distearoylphosphatidylcholine
-
activation
histone
-
activation
lysophosphatidylcholine
-
activation
Methylphosphatidylic acid
-
activation
phosphatidylcholine
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
activation
phosphatidylglycerol
-
activation
poly(L-Arg)
-
activation
poly(L-Lys)
-
activation
Protamine sulfate
-
activation
-
Triton X-100
additional information
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.16 - 0.27
4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
0.35 - 1.06
4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside
0.85 - 1.27
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
0.17
agalacto-poly-N-acetyllactosamine
-
-
-
2.8
agalactokeratan
-
-
-
0.2
alpha1-Acid glycoprotein
-
-
-
0.056 - 0.064
asialo-agalacto-transferrin
-
0.0608
asialogalactofetuin
-
-
-
0.96
chitotriose
-
-
1 - 21
D-glucose
0.029
fetuin
-
-
-
6.28
galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
-
-
0.01
Glc-NAcbeta1-3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol
-
-
0.6
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
-
-
1.23
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6 (GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3)Man
-
-
0.06
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6-Manbeta-OR
-
-
0.71
GlcNAcbeta1,4-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
-
-
0.25
glycopeptide prepared from porcine IgG immunoglobulin
-
-
-
0.02
IgG immunoglobulin heavy chain
-
-
-
0.83
lacto-N-triaosylceramide
-
-
0.19
lacto-N-triose II
-
-
0.01
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
-
-
1.59
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
-
-
0.8
N-acetylgalactosamine
-
-
0.0007 - 40
N-acetylglucosamine
0.43
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
-
-
0.13
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
-
-
3.4
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
-
-
1.5
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-galactose
-
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
0.054 - 0.27
ovalbumin
-
0.66
p-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucoside
-
-
-
0.79
pNP-beta-GlcNAc
-
pH 7.2
0.22 - 0.4
UDP-alpha-D-galactose
0.00491 - 0.27
UDP-Gal
0.0105 - 0.31
UDP-galactose
0.031 - 0.28
UDP-glucose
4
UDP-glucuronic acid
-
Km above 4 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
10
UDP-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
-
Km above 10 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
0.16
UDP-xylose
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
0.0108 - 0.25
UDPgalactose
additional information
additional information
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.13
4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
Homo sapiens
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
0.5 - 1.93
4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside
1.52
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
Homo sapiens
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
3.3 - 4.81
chitotriose
2.47
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
Homo sapiens
-
-
1.74
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6 (GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3)Man
Homo sapiens
-
-
1.9
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6-Manbeta-OR
Homo sapiens
-
-
3.35
GlcNAcbeta1,4-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
Homo sapiens
-
-
3.6
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
Homo sapiens
-
-
4.82
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.06 - 14
N-acetylglucosamine
0.5 - 1.93
UDP-alpha-D-galactose
0.33 - 14
UDP-galactose
0.02 - 0.96
UDP-glucose
0.003
UDP-glucuronic acid
Homo sapiens
-
Km above 0.003 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
0.003
UDP-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
Homo sapiens
-
Km above 0.003 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
0.01
UDP-xylose
Homo sapiens
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
additional information
additional information
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.47 - 4.17
4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside
1890
1.47 - 7.08
UDP-alpha-D-galactose
891
4.93
UDP-galactose
Homo sapiens
-
Km above 0.003 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
129
0.07
UDP-glucose
Homo sapiens
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
64
0.065
UDP-xylose
Homo sapiens
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
1013
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.01
1-thio-N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
pH 7.0
0.06
4-methylumbelliferyl 4-deoxy-4-fluoro-beta-D-xylopyranoside
-
recombinant wild type enzyme, at pH 7.0 and 37°C
1.28
4-methylumbelliferyl 4-deoxy-beta-D-xylopyranoside
-
recombinant wild type enzyme, at pH 7.0 and 37°C
1.93
TDP
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
0.61
UDP
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
0.0223
uridine 5'-(6-amino-(2-[(7-methyl-2-naphthyl)methoxycarbonylmethoxy]ethoxy)acetyl-6-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate
-
-
0.00186
uridine 5'-(6-O-[10-(2-naphthyl)-3,6,9-trioxadecanyl]-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)diphosphate
-
-
1.65
UTP
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37°C
additional information
additional information
-
inhibition kinetics
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.03
4-methylumbelliferyl 4-deoxy-4-fluoro-beta-D-xylopyranoside
Homo sapiens
-
recombinant wild type enzyme, at pH 7.0 and 37°C
0.53
4-methylumbelliferyl 4-deoxy-beta-D-xylopyranoside
Homo sapiens
-
recombinant wild type enzyme, at pH 7.0 and 37°C
0.012
5-(5-formylthien-2-yl)-UDP-alpha-D-galactose
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
-
1
5-(5-formylthien-2-yl)-uridine
Homo sapiens
-
IC50 above 1.0 mM, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.035
-
-
0.535
-
-
6.9
-
N-deglycosylated recombinant enzyme
8.4
-
recombinant enzyme
10.7
-
-
160
-
purified recombinant enzyme
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6
-
in Tris-maleate buffer
6.4 - 7.6
-
-
6.5
-
assay at
6.5 - 7
7.5 - 10.5
-
-
7.5
-
reaction with N-acetylglucosamine and UDPgalactose, reaction with alpha1-acid glycoprotein and UDPgalactose
8
-
assay at
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5 - 9.3
-
pH 5.0: about 60% of maximal activity, pH 9.3: about 45% of maximal activity
5.5 - 8
-
less than 50% of maximal activity above and below
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30 - 37
-
assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
25 - 45
-
less than 50% of maximal activity above and below
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
expression of beta1,4-GalT-I increases in the cartilage and synovial tissue of osteoarthritis patients compared with healthy controls
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
of patients with colorectal cancer 48% have down-regulated expression of beta-1,4-GT-IV in the tumor tissue, while 28% of patients exhibit elevated beta-1,4-GT-IV levels, the patient group with tumor beta-1,4-GT-IV overexpression strongly predicts for tumor metastasis, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the enzyme is maternally loaded and expressed throughout development, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
very high enzyme concentration in Golgi apparatus of epididymal duct epithelium from initial segment to intermediate caput, although much lower amounts of enzyme are in efferent ducts, distal caput, corpus and cauda. Even in the initial segment and caput epididymis, only low levels of soluble enzyme form are detected in the fluid
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in conventional mice, the beta1,4-galactosyltransferase gene expression rapidly increases to adult levels by the fourth postnatal week. In germ-free mice, gene expression remains at initial low levels and is rapidly induced on reintroduction of luminal microbes of the adult gut but not of microbes characteristic of the suckling gut. Essential role for microbes in the ontogeny of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ileal-colonic
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
regional distribution
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ATCC No. CCL22
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highly metastatic lung cancer cells, elevated levels of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I as compared to its less metastatic partner PGLH7 cells. Essential role for the transcription activator E1AF in the activation of human GalTI gene in highly metastatic lung cancer cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
anterior head of sperm head
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
during differentiation from spermatogonia to pachytene spermatocytes the amount of UDP beta1,4-galactosyltransferase mRNA is reduced to barley detectable levels
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
beta1, 4-GalT-I iss highly expressed in endometrium during implantation window
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
localized in the cytoplasm near nucleus and cytomembrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
subcellular distribution, Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum exchange kinetics, approximately 90:10 Golgi-to-ER distribution, two-compartment model for Golgi glycosyltransferase cycling, overview
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
38000
-
x * 38000, SDS-PAGE
42200
-
x * 42200, SDS-PAGE
42960
-
calculation from gene sequence, short form, transmembrane enzyme
43000
-
x * 43000, SDS-PAGE
44420
-
long form with NH2-terminal extension of 13 amino acids, calculation from gene sequence
44880
-
unglycosylated enzyme, calculation from gene sequence
47000
-
x * 47000, deglycosylated enzyme form, SDS-PAGE
48000
-
x * 48000, glycosylated enzyme form
51000
-
x * 51000, SDS-PAGE
53000
-
x * 53000, SDS-PAGE
54000
-
x * 54000, enzyme from milk, SDS-PAGE
55000
-
2 * 55000, SDS-PAGE
57000
-
sucrose density gradient centrifugation
59000
-
gel filtration
74000
-
1 * 74000, SDS-PAGE
85000 - 90000
-
gel filtration
106000
-
calculation from light-scattering experiments
440000
-
gel filtration
additional information
-
two related forms of enzyme of 399 and 386 amino acids are synthesized as a consequence of alternative translation initiation. The long enzyme form has a NH2-terminal extension of 13 amino acids
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
dimer
-
2 * 55000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
additional information
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
glycoprotein
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
catalytic domain of R228K-Gal-T1 and mouse recombinant alpha-lactalbumin are cocrystallized in the presence of UDP-galactose and MnCl2. Crystals are grown at room temperature by the hanging drop method. Crystal structure of R228K-Gal-T1 complexed with alpha-lactalbumin, UDP-galactose, and Mn2+, determined at 1.9 Å resolution shows that the Asp318 side chain exhibits a minor alternate conformation, compared to that in the wild type
-
crystal structure of enzyme-alpha-lactalbumin complex with UDP-Glc
-
crystal structures of the beta4galactosyltransferase catalytic domain and its complex with uridine diphosphogalactose
-
purified recombinant pentenary complex of bovine M344H-Gal-T1 mutant-Mn2+-UDP-GalNAc-Glc-alpha-lactalbumin, hanging-drop vapor diffusion method, using 20 mg/ml of beta-M344H-Gal-T1 and 10 mg/ml of mouse alpha-lactalbumin in the presence of 10 mM each ofUDP-Gal and CaCl2, with the precipitant containing 100 mM NaCl, 100 mM Mes-NaOH buffer, pH 6.0, and 12.5% PEG 4000, the crystals of the complex cannot be obtained in the absence of CaCl2, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.9-2.0 A resolution
-
recombinant enzyme, crystal structure of lactose synthase reveals a large conformational change in its catalytic component, the beta1,4-galactosyltransferase-I
-
mutant enzyme M340H/C338T in complex with Glc-NAcbeta1-3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol, hanging drop vapor diffusion method, using MES-NaOH buffer (pH 6.0), 1.5 M ammonium sulfate, and 3% dioxane
-
purified recombinant M340H-Gal-T1 mutant in the open conformation as apo-enzyme, and its Mn2+ and Mn2+-UDP-Gal-bound complexes, hanging-drop vapor diffusion method using a protein solution at 10 mg/ml concentration with a precipitant containing sodium citratebuffer, pH 5.5, and 10% w/v PEG-4000, the crystals of the Mn2+ complex are grown in the droplet containing 10 mM MnCl2, while the crystals containing UDP-Gal and Mn2+ are grown in the presence of 17 mM each of MnCl2 and UDP–Gal, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.7-2.0 A resolution
-
purified wild-type and M340H mutant enzymes in complex with pentasaccharide GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6 (GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3) and trisaccharide GlcNAcbeta1,4-GlcNAcbeta1,4-GlcNAc substrates, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.9-2.0 A resolution
-
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5 - 9
-
-
489493
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
40
-
4 h, 18% loss of activity
45
-
stable up to
50
-
1 h, complete loss of activity
56
-
inactivation at
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ammonium sulfate stabilizes during storage
-
glycerol stabilizes during storage
-
more than 50% loss of activity on freezing
-
the N-terminal stem extension enhances the in vitro folding efficiency of the catalytic domain by several fold, it increases the solubility of even the misfolded protein
Triton X-100 essential for stability during purification
-