Information on EC 2.5.1.16 - spermidine synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.5.1.16
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
spermidine synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine + putrescine = S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + spermidine
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
aminopropyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Arginine and proline metabolism
-
-
beta-Alanine metabolism
-
-
Cysteine and methionine metabolism
-
-
Glutathione metabolism
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
spermidine biosynthesis I
-
-
polyamine pathway
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine:putrescine 3-aminopropyltransferase
The enzymes from the plant Glycine max and from mammalia are highly specific for putrescine as the amine acceptor [2,7]. The enzymes from the bacteria Escherichia coli and Thermotoga maritima prefer putrescine but are more tolerant towards other amine acceptors, such as spermidine and cadaverine [5,6]. cf. EC 2.5.1.22 (spermine synthase) and EC 2.5.1.23 (sym-norspermidine synthase).
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
37277-82-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Chinese cabbage, var Pak Choy
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Bristol N2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Bristol N2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chicken
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar SpB
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
soybean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene spdS
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars Arbequina and Picual, gene OeSPDS
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male Sprague Dawley strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wistar strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
spinach
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pig
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme is encoded by a chimeric bifunctional gene (Spe-Sdh) that also encodes saccharopine dehydrogenase (Sdh)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
spermidine synthase is a key enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
5'-methyl,5'-deoxymethylthioadenosine + putrescine
?
show the reaction diagram
putrescine + (methyl-14C)-S-adenosylmethioninamine
spermidine + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
putrescine + S-5'-deoxyadenosyl-(5')-3-methylthiopropylamine
spermidine + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
putrescine + S-adenosylmethioninamine
spermidine + 5'-methylthioadenosine
show the reaction diagram
S-5'-deoxyadenosyl-5'-3-butylthiopropylamine + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-5'-deoxyadenosyl-5'-3-ethylthiopropylamine + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
S-5'-deoxyadenosyl-5'-3-propylthiopropylamine + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine + putrescine
S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + spermidine
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 1,3-diaminopropane
?
show the reaction diagram
-
weak substrate
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 1,4-diamino-2-butene
5'-methylthioadenosine + N-3-aminopropyl-1,4-diamino-2-butene
show the reaction diagram
-
-
in a lower yield than with the natural combination
?
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 1,4-diamino-2-butene
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 1,4-diamino-2-butene
N-3-aminopropyl-1,4-diamino-2-butene + 5'-methylthioadenosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
forms with a low yield
?
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 1,4-diaminobutane
5'-methylthioadenosine + spermidine
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 1,6-diaminohexane
?
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 1-methyl-1,4-butanediamine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 2,2-difluoro-1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 2-chloro-1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 2-hydroxy-1,4 butanediamine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 2-methyl-1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + spermidine
5'-methylthioadenosine + spermine
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthiopropylamine + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-3-butylthio-1-propylamine + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
-
prostate enzyme
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-3-carboxymethylthio-1-propylamine + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-3-ethylthio-1-propylamine + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 1,3-diaminopentane
?
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 1,4-diaminobutane
5'-methylthioadenosine + spermidine
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 1,5-diaminopentane
5'-methylthioadenosine + N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,5-diaminopentane
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-3-propylthio-1-propylamine + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-3-thiopropylamine sulfone + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-3-thiopropylamine sulfoxide + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-5',1-methyl-3-methylthiopropylamine + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-L-ethionine + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine sulfone + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 1,4-diaminobutane
?
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosylmethioninamine + putrescine
5'-methylthioadenosine + spermidine
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosylmethioninamine + putrescine
5'-S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + spermidine
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosylmethioninamine + putrescine
S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + spermidine
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosylmethioninamine + putrescine
spermidine + 5'-methylthioadenosine
show the reaction diagram
spermidine + S-adenosylmethioninamine
spermine + 5'-methylthioadenosine
show the reaction diagram
in contrast to mammalian spermidine synthases, spermidine can replace to some extent putrescine as the aminopropyl acceptor
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine + putrescine
S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + spermidine
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-3-methylthio-1-propylamine + 1,4-diaminobutane
5'-methylthioadenosine + spermidine
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosylmethioninamine + putrescine
5'-S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + spermidine
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosylmethioninamine + putrescine
S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + spermidine
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
-
using yeast two-hybrid assays, spermidine synthase2 is identified as a specific 10A06 interactor. 10A06 is a cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) secretory protein able to infect Arabidopsis thaliana, that is secreted as an effector into the developing syncytia during early plant parasitism
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-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
0.01 mM, activity increases by 200%
Co2+
-
0.01 mM, activity increases by 352%
Cu2+
-
0.01 mM, activity increases by 230%
Mg2+
-
10 mM, activity increases 20%
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,3-Diaminopropane
1,5-Diaminopentane
-
weak, competitive
1,6-diaminohexane
-
23% inhibition
1-Aminooxy-3-aminopropane
1H-benzimidazol-5-yl(4-[(2Z)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl]piperazin-1-yl)methanone
-
identified by a five-step structure-based virtual screening procedure as a binder to spermidine synthase active site. Binds reversibly to the active site and partially competes with binding of methylthioadenosine
2-mercaptoethylamine
2-phenyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-one
-
2-[(6-amino-5,9-dihydro-4H-purin-8-yl)sulfanyl]acetamide
-
identified by a five-step structure-based virtual screening procedure as a binder to spermidine synthase active site. Binds reversibly to the active site and competes with binding of methylthioadenosine
2H-1,4-benzothiazin-3-amine
-
4-amino-1-butene
-
-
4-methylaniline
-
4-methylcyclohexylamine
4-methylenecyclohexylamine
-
-
5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine
5'-deoxy-5'-methylthiotubercidine
5'-ethylthioadenosine
5'-methylthioadenosine
5'-methylthiotubercidin
5-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)pentan-1-amine
-
identified by a five-step structure-based virtual screening procedure as a binder to spermidine synthase active site. Binds reversibly to the active site
5-amino-1-pentene
5-amino-1-pentyne
-
-
5-[(4-methylbenzyl)oxy]quinazolin-2-amine
-
6-amino-1-hexene
-
-
6-amino-1-hexyne
-
-
agmatine
-
89% inhibition at 0.1 mM and 61% inhibition at 1 mM
alpha,omega-Diamines
-
with 3 carbon atoms, at 0.25 mM, not at 2.5 mM substrate concentration
arginine
-
98% inhibition at 0.01 mM, 95% inhibition at 0.1 mM and 84% inhibition at 1 mM
benzimidazol-(2-yl)pentan-1-amine
-
-
bis-cyclohexylammonium sulfate
-
in vitro, 0.2 mM provokes strong decrease in cellular spermidine content, inhibition in cell growth, decrease in DNA synthesis, alterations in cell morphology, disorganization of microfilaments and changes in microtubule network structure, impairs the rate of microtubule reappearance after disruption with colchicine, alterations are prevented with spermidine addition
cadaverine
CGC-11038
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11098
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11099
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11108
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11114
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11121
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11122
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11144
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11150
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11157
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11158
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11159
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11160
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11172
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11175
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11207
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11211
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11217
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11226
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11227
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11231
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11235
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11237
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11239
-
polyamine analogue
CGC-11241
-
polyamine analogue
Cyclohexylamine
deaminated analogs of decarboxy-S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthiopropylamine
-
competitive inhibition with 1,4-diaminobutane and non-competitive with decarboxy-S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthiopropylamine
decarboxylated S-adenosylhomocysteine
Dicyclohexylamine
poor inhibition
DTNB
-
potent inhibition, activity is restored to more than 95% with 0.1 mM DTT
exo-2-aminonorbornane
-
potent and selective, 98% inhibition at 0.1 mM in the presence of 1 mM of putrescine
Homospermidine
-
95% inhibition at 0.01 mM, 92% inhibition at 0.1 mM and 30% inhibition at 1 mM
isoquinolin-1-amine
-
methyl (2E)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)hydrazinecarbimidothioate
-
identified by a five-step structure-based virtual screening procedure as a binder to spermidine synthase active site. Binds reversibly to the active site and partially competes with binding of methylthioadenosine
mitoguazone
-
-
N,N'-Bis-(2-aminoethyl)propane-1,3-diamine
-
strong, 52% inhibition
n-butylamine
N-ethylmaleimide
n-Hexylamine
-
-
N-methyl-6-(piperidin-1-yl)hexan-1-amine
-
identified by a five-step structure-based virtual screening procedure as a binder to spermidine synthase active site. Binds reversibly to the active site
N-methyl-N-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxine-2-carboxamide
-
n-Pentylamine
-
-
N-[2-(phenylsulfanyl)ethyl]-1H-benzotriazole-5-carboxamide
-
identified by a five-step structure-based virtual screening procedure as a binder to spermidine synthase active site. Binds reversibly to the active site and partially competes with binding of methylthioadenosine
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
Pentamidine
-
-
quinolin-8-yl piperidine-1-carboxylate
-
S-5'-Deoxyadenosyl(5')-2-ethylthioethylamine
-
uncompetitive with S-adenosyl-3-methylthio-1-propylamine at high concentrations but competitive with S-5'-deoxyadenosyl-5'-3-ethylthiopropylamine
S-5'-Deoxyadenosyl(5')-2-methylthioethylamine
S-5'-Deoxyadenosyl(5')-2-thioethylamine
-
weak
S-5'-Deoxyadenosyl(5')-3-butylthiopropylamine
-
weak
S-5'-deoxyadenosyl(5')-3-thiopropylamine
-
weak
S-5'-Deoxyadenosyl(5')-4-methylthiobutylamine
-
weak
S-5'-Deoxyadenosyl(5')-4-thiobutylamine
-
uncompetitive with S-Adenosyl-3-methylthio-1-propylamine
S-Adenosyl(5')-2-methylthioethylamine
-
-
S-Adenosyl(5')-3-methylthiopropanol
-
kinetics
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine
S-Adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-methylthiooctane
-
less efficient than the thioether
S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thio-octane
-
S-Adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane
S-Adenosyl-3-thiopropylamine sulfone
-
-
S-Adenosyl-4-methylthiobutyric acid
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-ethionine
-
-
S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine sulfone
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
S-Inosyl(5')-3-methylthiopropylamine
-
not S-inosyl(5')-3-methylthiopropanol
S-Tubercidinylmethionine
-
-
spermidine
spermine
-
99% inhibition at 0.1 mM and 90% inhibition at 1 mM
Substrate and product analogues
-
overview
-
sulfhydryl reagents
-
W strain
Sulfoxide and sulfone derivatives of decarboxylated S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
-
-
-
trans-4-ethyl-cyclohexylamine
-
-
trans-4-hydroxycyclohexylamine
-
-
trans-4-Methylcyclohexylamine
triethylenetetramine
-
39% inhibition
additional information
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
glycerol
-
expression of SPDS is barely detectable in the callus grown on callus growth medium (composed of basal Murashige and Tucker salts), which shows steady increase on embryo-inducing medium including 2% glycerol until the end of culture at day 40. Expression level of the gene is induced by glycerol from globular embryos to cotyledonary-stage embryos to a different extent, suggesting that the polyamine biosynthetic genes are related to somatic embryogenesis
additional information
-
increased enzyme activity after wounding of the potatoe
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.012 - 0.2
1,4-diaminobutane
0.019 - 0.205
putrescine
0.0004 - 1.1
S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthio-1-propylamine
0.0003 - 0.007
S-adenosyl-3-methylthio-1-propylamine
0.00009 - 0.111
S-adenosylmethioninamine
additional information
additional information
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.012 - 22.7
putrescine
0.012 - 22.7
S-adenosylmethioninamine
additional information
additional information
Thermotoga maritima
Q9WZC2
-
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2.5 - 4.8
S-adenosylmethioninamine
1431
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0023
1-Aminooxy-3-aminopropane
-
-
0.005
2-mercaptoethylamine
-
-
0.00026 - 0.0019
S-5'-deoxyadenosyl-(5')-2-methylthioethylamine
0.000008 - 0.00005
S-Adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane
0.00004 - 0.00018
trans-4-Methylcyclohexylamine
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.000051
2-phenyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-one
Trypanosoma cruzi
Q4DA73
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.18
2H-1,4-benzothiazin-3-amine
Trypanosoma cruzi
Q4DA73
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0091
5-[(4-methylbenzyl)oxy]quinazolin-2-amine
Trypanosoma cruzi
Q4DA73
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0024
Cyclohexylamine
Caenorhabditis elegans
-
IC50 2.4 +/- 0.7 microM
0.46
isoquinolin-1-amine
Trypanosoma cruzi
Q4DA73
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.53
N-methyl-N-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxine-2-carboxamide
Trypanosoma cruzi
Q4DA73
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.83
quinolin-8-yl piperidine-1-carboxylate
Trypanosoma cruzi
Q4DA73
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0002
S-Adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane
Thermotoga maritima
-
IC50 of 0.0002 mM
0.0014 - 0.0072
trans-4-Methylcyclohexylamine
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.076
-
-
0.66
-
-
0.712
-
-
1.12
-
-
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.8 - 7.2
-
assay at
7.2
-
assay at
7.4
-
assay at
7.7
-
in Gly-NaOH buffer
8.5
-
activity is 20% higher in Tris-HCl buffer than in phosphate buffer at the same pH
8.8
-
in Gly-NaOH buffer
9.6
-
190% of the activity, taking pH 7 as 100%
10.3
-
W strain
additional information
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.5 - 9.8
-
about 60% of maximal activity at pH 6.5 and about 85% of maximal activity at pH 9.8
8.6 - 10.6
-
about 65% of maximal activity at pH 8.6 and about 90% of maximal activity at pH 10.6
additional information
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
22
-
assay at room temperature
34
-
assay at
37 - 80
assay at
90
-
more active than at 37ºC
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
37 - 50
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.02
sequence calculation
5.32
sequence calculation
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
highest levels of expression in nucleus accumbens, taenia tecta, cerebellar cortex, cerebral cortical layer I, hippocampus, hypothalamus, mesencephalic raphe nuclei, central and lateral amygdala, and the circumventricular organs
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
nucellar-derived embryogenic callus of Valencia sweet orange is maintained on callus growth medium composed of basal Murashige and Tucker salts, partially supplemented with glycerol, alpha-difluoromethylornithine or putrescine
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highest levels of expression in nucleus accumbens, taenia tecta, cerebellar cortex, cerebral cortical layer I, hippocampus, hypothalamus, mesencephalic raphe nuclei, central and lateral amygdala, and the circumventricular organs
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highest levels of expression in nucleus accumbens, taenia tecta, cerebellar cortex, cerebral cortical layer I, hippocampus, hypothalamus, mesencephalic raphe nuclei, central and lateral amygdala, and the circumventricular organs. Distinct presence in mossy fiber terminals of cerebellar cortex
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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embryo, 7 days old
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highest levels of expression in nucleus accumbens, taenia tecta, cerebellar cortex, cerebral cortical layer I, hippocampus, hypothalamus, mesencephalic raphe nuclei, central and lateral amygdala, and the circumventricular organs
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highest levels of expression in nucleus accumbens, taenia tecta, cerebellar cortex, cerebral cortical layer I, hippocampus, hypothalamus, mesencephalic raphe nuclei, central and lateral amygdala, and the circumventricular organs
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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highest levels of expression in nucleus accumbens, taenia tecta, cerebellar cortex, cerebral cortical layer I, hippocampus, hypothalamus, mesencephalic raphe nuclei, central and lateral amygdala, and the circumventricular organs
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expression in ovules of ovary at anthesis stage
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
in nucellus, integuments and inner epidermis tissues of fertilized ovules
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
high expression detected by RT-PCR; high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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mesencephalic raphe nucelus, highest levels of expression in nucleus accumbens, taenia tecta, cerebellar cortex, cerebral cortical layer I, hippocampus, hypothalamus, mesencephalic raphe nuclei, central and lateral amygdala, and the circumventricular organs
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expression in nodule inner cortical cells, vascular bundles, and central tissues. Expression is maximal at early stages of nodule development, while at later stages, the level declines
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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1 day old, maximum activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; intermediate expression detected by RT-PCR
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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highest levels of expression in nucleus accumbens, taenia tecta, cerebellar cortex, cerebral cortical layer I, hippocampus, hypothalamus, mesencephalic raphe nuclei, central and lateral amygdala, and the circumventricular organs
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
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episome
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
Bacillus subtilis (strain 168)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Helicobacter pylori (strain ATCC 700392 / 26695)
Helicobacter pylori (strain ATCC 700392 / 26695)
Pyrococcus furiosus (strain ATCC 43587 / DSM 3638 / JCM 8422 / Vc1)
Pyrococcus horikoshii (strain ATCC 700860 / DSM 12428 / JCM 9974 / NBRC 100139 / OT-3)
Pyrococcus horikoshii (strain ATCC 700860 / DSM 12428 / JCM 9974 / NBRC 100139 / OT-3)
Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
Thermus thermophilus (strain HB8 / ATCC 27634 / DSM 579)
Thermus thermophilus (strain HB8 / ATCC 27634 / DSM 579)
Trypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener)
Trypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener)
Trypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener)
Trypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener)
Trypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener)
Trypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener)
Trypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener)
Trypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener)
Trypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener)
Trypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener)
Trypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30590
-
calculated
31900
calculated
33000
x * 33000, calculated, x * 37000, SDS-PAGE
33252
2 * 36500, 2 * 33823, recombinant His6-tagged enzyme, mass spectrometry, 2 * 33252, His6-tagged enzyme, sequence calculation
33823
2 * 36500, 2 * 33823, recombinant His6-tagged enzyme, mass spectrometry, 2 * 33252, His6-tagged enzyme, sequence calculation
34000 - 35000
35800
-
2 * 35800, SDS-PAGE
36380
x * 36380, sequence calculation
36390
calculated from sequence
36500
2 * 36500, 2 * 33823, recombinant His6-tagged enzyme, mass spectrometry, 2 * 33252, His6-tagged enzyme, sequence calculation
36932
x * 36932, sequence calculation
38000
-
SDS-PAGE, including His-tag of 3 kDA
58000
-
dimeric enzyme form A, analytical ultracentrifugation
70600
-
W strain, sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation
72000
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W strain
123000
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tetrameric enzyme form B, analytical ultracentrifugation
131000
-
gel filtration
158000
-
tetrameric enzyme form B, gel filtration
650000 - 750000
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gel filtration