Information on EC 1.4.1.1 - alanine dehydrogenase

Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.
Specify your search results
Select one or more organisms in this record:
Show additional data
Do not include text mining results
Include (text mining) results (more...)
Include results (AMENDA + additional results, but less precise; more...)


The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.4.1.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
alanine dehydrogenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
L-alanine + H2O + NAD+ = pyruvate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
oxidative deamination
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
reductive amination
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
-
-
L-alanine degradation IV
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
-
-
alanine metabolism
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-alanine:NAD+ oxidoreductase (deaminating)
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9029-06-5
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
mycoplasma
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ald, ORF alr2355
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ald, ORF alr2355
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain T
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus japonicum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ald
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
screening of thermostable alanine dehydrogenase in thermophilic Bacillus strains
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ald
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
psychrophile strain PA-43, isolated from a sea urchin
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain St2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain St2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 20020 and strain 20028
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Z
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Z
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain XL-65-6
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Micromonospora melanosporea
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Lactococcus lactis
strain NZ9000
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Mycobacterium bovis BCG
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ac10
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. shermanii
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain AM1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DSS-3
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain PCC 7942
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain GK24
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain GK24
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2-ketocaproate + NH3 + NADH
2-aminocaproate + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
2-oxo-3-methylbutanoate + NH3 + NADH
L-Val + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-oxobutanoate + NH3 + NADH
2-aminobutanoate + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
2-oxoglutarate + NH3 + NADH
L-Gln + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
3-bromopyruvate + NH3 + NADH
2-amino-3-bromopropanoate + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
5.3% of the activity with pyruvate
-
-
?
3-fluoropyruvate + NH3 + NADH
3-fluoro-L-alanine + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
3-fluoropyruvate + NH3 + NADH
? + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
3-hydroxypyruvate + NH3 + NADH
L-Ser + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
3-hydroxypyruvate + NH3 + NADH
Ser + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
15.4% of the activity with pyruvate
-
-
?
4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + NH3 + NADH
2-amino-4-methylpentanoate + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
D-Ala + H2O + NAD+
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
D-Ser + H2O + NAD+
3-hydroxypyruvate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
DL-alanine + H2O + NAD+
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
Gly + H2O + NAD+
glyoxylate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
glycine + H2O + NAD+
glyoxylate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
glyoxylate + NH3 + NADH
aminoacetate + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
hydroxypyruvate + NH3 + NADH
L-Ser + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
ketovalerate + NH3 + NADH
2-aminovalerate + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-2-aminobutanoate + H2O + NAD+
2-oxobutanoate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
L-2-aminobutyrate + H2O + NAD+
2-oxobutyrate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-Ala + H2O + 1,N6-etheno-NAD+
pyruvate + NH3 + 1,N6-etheno-NADH
show the reaction diagram
L-Ala + H2O + 3-acetylpyridine-NAD+
pyruvate + H2O + 3-acetylpyridine-NADH
show the reaction diagram
L-Ala + H2O + 3-pyridinealdehyde-NAD+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
5.0% of the activity with NAD+
-
-
?
L-Ala + H2O + deamino-NAD+
pyruvate + NH3 + deamino-NADH
show the reaction diagram
L-Ala + H2O + NAD+
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
L-Ala + H2O + NADP+
pyruvate + NH3 + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
L-Ala + H2O + nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide
?
show the reaction diagram
L-alanine + H2O + NAD+
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
L-alanine + NAD+ + H2O
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
L-Asp + H2O + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-Ile + H2O + NAD+
2-oxo-3-methylpentanoate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
L-isoleucine + H2O + NAD+
2-oxo-3-methylpentanoate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-norvaline + H2O + NAD+
2-oxopentanoate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
L-Ser + H2O + NAD+
3-hydroxypyruvate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
L-serine + H2O + NAD+
3-hydroxypyruvate + NH3 + NADH + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-Thr + H2O + NAD+
3-hydroxy-2-oxobutyrate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-threonine + H2O + NAD+
3-hydroxy-2-oxobutyrate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-Val + H2O + NAD+
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
oxaloacetate + NH3 + NADH
L-Asp + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
phenylpyruvate + NH3 + NADH
L-phenylalanine + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH
L-Ala + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH
L-Ala + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
primary route for alanine synthesis in isolated bacteroids, alanine synthesis and secretion contributes to the efficiency of N2-fixation and therefore biomass accumulation
-
-
?
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH
L-alanine + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH + H+
L-alanine + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
DL-alanine + H2O + NAD+
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
glycine + H2O + NAD+
glyoxylate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-Ala + H2O + NAD+
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
L-alanine + H2O + NAD+
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
L-alanine + NAD+ + H2O
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
L-isoleucine + H2O + NAD+
2-oxo-3-methylpentanoate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-serine + H2O + NAD+
3-hydroxypyruvate + NH3 + NADH + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-threonine + H2O + NAD+
3-hydroxy-2-oxobutyrate + NH3 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH
L-Ala + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
primary route for alanine synthesis in isolated bacteroids, alanine synthesis and secretion contributes to the efficiency of N2-fixation and therefore biomass accumulation
-
-
?
pyruvate + NH3 + NADH + H+
L-alanine + H2O + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,N6-etheno-NAD+
3-acetylpyridine-NAD+
3-pyridinealdehyde-NAD+
-
5.0% of the activity with NAD+
deamino-NAD+
NADP+
NADPH
nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide
additional information
independent of cytochrome c, assayed with ferricyanide as an electron acceptor
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
activation
CdCl2
-
stimulates
Co2+
-
activation
Fe2+
-
activation
Mg2+
-
activation
Mn2+
-
activation
RbCl
-
stimulates
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid
-
inactivation follows pseudo first-order kinetics with a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio between the reagent and the enzyme subunit. Partial protection by each of the substrates, NADH or pyruvate. Complete protection only in presence of the ternary complex enzyme-NADH-pyruvate
2-oxobutanoate
-
weak
3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate
-
inactivation follows pseudo first-order kinetics with a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio between the reagent and the enzyme subunit. Partial protection by each of the substrates, NADH or pyruvate. Complete protection only in presence of the ternary complex enzyme-NADH-pyruvate
3-Bromopyruvate
-
-
3-hydroxypyruvate
-
competitive with respect to pyruvate
5'-(p-(fluorosulfonyl)-benzoyl)adenosine
-
inactivation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics, complete inactivation of the enzyme can not be obtained even at high reagent concentration
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate)
-
-
AgNO3
-
0.1 mM, 57% inhibition
CaCl2
Cibacron blue
Cibacron blue F3GA
0.1 mM, 70% inhibition
CoCl2
CuCl2
CuSO4
D-2-Aminobutanoate
-
-
D-Ala
D-Cys
DTNB
7% inhibition with 0.01 M and 40% inhibition with 0.1 mM
Fe3+
-
10 mM, 85% inhibition of reductive amination
glycine
glyoxylate
-
weak
HgCl2
Hydroxypyruvate
iodoacetate
Ketobutyrate
-
-
L-2-aminobutyrate
-
-
L-Cys
L-Glutamic acid
-
-
L-Phe
-
reductive amination of pyruvate, 10 mM, 28% inhibition
L-Ser
L-Thr
L-Trp
-
reductive amination of pyruvate, 10 mM, 29% inhibition
Mercurials
-
methyl p-nitrobenzenesulfonate
0.1 mM, complete inhibition
methylglyoxal
-
-
MgCl2
Mn2+
-
10 mM, 60% inhibition of reductive amination
MnCl2
MnSO4
-
10 mM, 50% inhibition
NADPH
-
inhibition of reductive amination
Ni2+
-
10 mM, 60% inhibition of reductive amination
oxaloacetate
-
-
oxamate
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
no effect on aminating activity, inhibition of deaminating activity
phosphoenolpyruvate
-
-
propionate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyruvate
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,10-phenanthroline
-
activation
2,2'-dipyridyl
-
activation
2-mercaptoethanol
beta-mercaptoethanol
slight activatory effect
Cys
-
activates
diethyldithiocarbamate
-
activation
dithioerythritol
-
activates
dithiothreitol
DTT
-
31% activation at 10 mM
glutathione
-
16.5% activation at 10 mM
L-Arg
-
activation
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
11
2-oxo-3-methylbutanoate
-
-
2.4 - 23
2-oxobutanoate
0.48
2-oxobutyrate
-
pH 8.5, 82C
7
2-Oxohexanoate
-
-
23 - 33
2-Oxopentanoate
1.61
3-Fluoropyruvate
-
-
80
3-hydroxypyruvate
-
-
12
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate
-
-
45
4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate
-
-
16
glyoxalate
-
-
12
glyoxylate
-
-
2.5
Hydroxypyruvate
-
-
0.33 - 176
L-2-aminobutanoate
0.085
L-2-aminobutyrate
-
pH 8.5, 82C
0.018 - 30
L-Ala
1.25 - 13.3
L-alanine
250
L-Ile
-
-
0.014 - 62
L-norvaline
0.039 - 57
L-Ser
0.02 - 150
L-Val
0.01 - 11.4
NAD+
0.01 - 50
NADH
0.35 - 4
NADP+
2.3 - 1060
NH3
0.82 - 500
NH4+
0.97 - 3
oxaloacetate
0.0512 - 8.16
pyruvate
additional information
additional information
-
kinetics of ald and glyoxylate dehydrogenae activities, overview
-