Information on EC 2.3.1.225 - protein S-acyltransferase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.3.1.225
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
protein S-acyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
palmitoyl-CoA + [protein]-L-cysteine = [protein]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
palmitoyl-CoA:[protein]-L-cysteine S-palmitoyltransferase
The enzyme catalyses the posttranslational protein palmitoylation that plays a role in protein-membrane interactions, protein trafficking, and enzyme activity. Palmitoylation increases the hydrophobicity of proteins or protein domains and contributes to their membrane association.
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
myristoyl-CoA + [Gialpha1]-L-cysteine
[protein]-S-myristoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
GiR1 is myristoylated at its N-terminus and palmitoylated at an adjacent cysteine, substrate of APT1
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Chs3]-L-cysteine
[Chs3]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + [endothelial nitric oxide synthase]-L-cysteine
[endothelial nitric oxide synthase]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isozyme DHHC-21
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [G protein alpha subunit Gialpha1]-L-cysteine
[G protein alpha subunit Gialpha1]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [G protein alpha subunit]-L-cysteine
[G protein alpha subunit]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [G-protein alpha subunit Galphai]-L-cysteine
[G-protein alpha subunit Galphai]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Ga protein]-L-cysteine
[Ga protein]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
substrate of DHHC3 and DHHC7
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [GAD65]-L-cysteine
[GAD65]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [GAP-43 protein]-L-cysteine
[GAP-43 protein]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
substrate of DHHC7 and DHHC15
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Gialpha1]-L-cysteine
[Gialpha1]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [GOalpha1]-L-cysteine
[GOalpha1]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [GSalpha1]-L-cysteine
[GSalpha1]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
Gsa is not a myristoylated protein, but is palmitoylated at Cys3
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [H-Ras]-L-cysteine
[H-Ras]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [htt(1-548)]-L-cysteine
[htt(1-548)]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
N-terminal fragment of htt(1-548)
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Lck]-L-cysteine
[Lck]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
nonreceptor tyrosine kinase
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [N-myristoylated G-protein alphai1]-L-cysteine
[N-myristoylated G-protein alphai1]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [N-myristoylated Gly-Cys-Gly tripeptide]-L-cysteine
[N-myristoylated Gly-Cys-Gly tripeptide]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [Pat10]-L-cysteine
[PAT10]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
autoacylation
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + [PAT14]-L-cysteine
[PAT14]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
autoacylation
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + [Pfa4]-L-cysteine
[Pfa4]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
autoacylation
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + [phospholemman]-L-cysteine
[phospholemman]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
isoform DHHC5 palmitoylates cardiac phosphoprotein phospholemman at two juxtamembrane cysteines, C40 and C42. C40 is the principal palmitoylation site
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + [protein]-L-cysteine
[protein]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [PSD-95]-L-cysteine
[PSD-95]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
low activity
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [PSD95]-L-cysteine
[Ras]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [Ras1p]-L-cysteine
[Ras1p]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
Ras oncogene homologues, Ras1p and Ras2p, undergo reversible palmitoylation by Erf2p on a Cys residue adjacent to the canonical CaaX box prenylation motif at the C-terminus of the protein
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Ras2p]-L-cysteine
[Ras2p]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
Ras oncogene homologues, Ras1p and Ras2p, undergo reversible palmitoylation by Erf2p on a Cys residue adjacent to the canonical CaaX box prenylation motif at the C-terminus of the protein. both Erf2p and Erf4p are involved in the palmitoylation of Ras2p, overview. Mutation of the palmitoylated Cys to Ser abolishes palmitoylation and results in a mislocalization of Ras2p from the plasma membrane to endomembranes. Yeast Erf2p-Erf4p Ras PAT work best with yeast Ras2 protein and less well with mammalian myristoylated GiR subunits or mammalian Ha-Ras. Long chain acyl-CoA substrates, 16 and 18 carbons, are preferred over shorter acyl chains, below 14 carbons
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Ras]-L-cysteine
[Ras]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [RGS4]-L-cysteine
[RGS4]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [rhodopsin]-L-cysteine
[rhodopsin]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [short lipid-modified cysteinyl-containing peptide]-L-cysteine
[short lipid-modified cysteinyl-containing peptide]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [SNAP-25]-L-cysteine
[SNAP-25]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [Snc1]-L-cysteine
[Snc1]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [Swf1]-L-cysteine
[Swf1]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
autoacylation
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + [Syn8]-L-cysteine
[Syn8]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [synaptotagmin I ]-L-cysteine
[synaptotagmin I ]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Tlg1]-L-cysteine
[Tlg1]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [Vac8p]-L-cysteine
[Vac8p]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [Vac8]-L-cysteine
[Vac8]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [Yck2p]-L-cysteine
[Yck2p]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
Akr1p is a palmitoyltransferase for Yck2p that catalyzes the transfer of palmitate from palmitoyl-CoA to a C-terminal Cys residue, formation of an Akr1p-palmitoyl intermediate
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Yck2]-L-cysteine
[Yck2]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
yeast casein kinase Yck2 is a substrate of Akr1
-
-
r
stearoyl-CoA + [rhodopsin]-L-cysteine
[rhodopsin]-S-stearoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
Rhodopsin containing rod outer segment membranes prepared from fresh, dark-adapted bovine retinae
-
-
r
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
myristoyl-CoA + [Gialpha1]-L-cysteine
[protein]-S-myristoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
GiR1 is myristoylated at its N-terminus and palmitoylated at an adjacent cysteine, substrate of APT1
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [endothelial nitric oxide synthase]-L-cysteine
[endothelial nitric oxide synthase]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isozyme DHHC-21
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [G protein alpha subunit]-L-cysteine
[G protein alpha subunit]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [G-protein alpha subunit Galphai]-L-cysteine
[G-protein alpha subunit Galphai]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Ga protein]-L-cysteine
[Ga protein]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q8IUH5, Q9Y397
substrate of DHHC3 and DHHC7
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [GAP-43 protein]-L-cysteine
[GAP-43 protein]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q8IUH5, Q9Y397
substrate of DHHC7 and DHHC15
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Gialpha1]-L-cysteine
[Gialpha1]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [H-Ras]-L-cysteine
[H-Ras]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [Lck]-L-cysteine
[Lck]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q8IUH5, Q9Y397
nonreceptor tyrosine kinase
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [protein]-L-cysteine
[protein]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [PSD95]-L-cysteine
[Ras]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q8IUH5, Q9Y397
possible substrate of DHHC15 and, to a lesser extent, DHHC2, DHHC3, and DHHC7
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Ras1p]-L-cysteine
[Ras1p]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
Ras oncogene homologues, Ras1p and Ras2p, undergo reversible palmitoylation by Erf2p on a Cys residue adjacent to the canonical CaaX box prenylation motif at the C-terminus of the protein
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Ras2p]-L-cysteine
[Ras2p]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
Ras oncogene homologues, Ras1p and Ras2p, undergo reversible palmitoylation by Erf2p on a Cys residue adjacent to the canonical CaaX box prenylation motif at the C-terminus of the protein. both Erf2p and Erf4p are involved in the palmitoylation of Ras2p, overview. Mutation of the palmitoylated Cys to Ser abolishes palmitoylation and results in a mislocalization of Ras2p from the plasma membrane to endomembranes. Yeast Erf2p-Erf4p Ras PAT work best with yeast Ras2 protein and less well with mammalian myristoylated GiR subunits or mammalian Ha-Ras. Long chain acyl-CoA substrates, 16 and 18 carbons, are preferred over shorter acyl chains, below 14 carbons
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Ras]-L-cysteine
[Ras]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [RGS4]-L-cysteine
[RGS4]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [rhodopsin]-L-cysteine
[rhodopsin]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
PAT incorporates fatty acid into rhodopsin with higher efficiency, 10times higher initial rate, as compared to autoacylation, presence of deacylated, free cysteine residues in dark-adapted rhodopsin increases palmitoylation via PAT
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [SNAP-25]-L-cysteine
[SNAP-25]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q8IUH5, Q9Y397
substrate of DHHC3 and DHHC7
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Vac8p]-L-cysteine
[Vac8p]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + [Vac8]-L-cysteine
[Vac8]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
Vac8 is a substrate of Pfa3, Vac8 is a myristoylated and palmitoylated protein that localizes to the vacuolar membrane and is required for vacuolar fusion
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Yck2p]-L-cysteine
[Yck2p]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
Akr1p is a palmitoyltransferase for Yck2p that catalyzes the transfer of palmitate from palmitoyl-CoA to a C-terminal Cys residue, formation of an Akr1p-palmitoyl intermediate
-
-
r
palmitoyl-CoA + [Yck2]-L-cysteine
[Yck2]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
yeast casein kinase Yck2 is a substrate of Akr1
-
-
r
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Zinc
-
bound in the cysteine-rich domain. Treatment of isoform DHHC3 with chelating agents in vitro leads to specific structural perturbations and activity deficits also observed in conserved cysteine mutants. The stoichiometry of zinc binding is 2 mol of zinc/mol of DHHC3 protein
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-bromo-palmitate
-
protein palmitoylation inhibitor in vivo
2-Bromopalmitate
acyl-CoA binding protein
-
myristoyl-CoA
-
-
stearoyl-CoA
-
-
additional information
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
acyl-CoA binding protein
-
ATP
-
both intermediate formation and acyl transfer to Yck2p by Akr1p are stimulated by ATP
Erf4
-
required by Erf2 for activity, Erf2 and Erf4 copurify as a complex and interact in a yeast two-hybrid assay
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0052 - 0.0059
palmitoyl-CoA
0.00084 - 0.0013
[N-myristoylated Gly-Cys-Gly tripeptide]-L-cysteine
additional information
additional information
-
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.4 - 8
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30 - 37
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
expression of 5 PAT isozymes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression in the hippocampal subfield CA3 and the dentate gyrus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
HIP14 resides on the Golgi and can be observed on cytoplasmic vesicles
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ERF2 encodes a protein with four predicted membrane-spanning domains
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
34700
-
x * 34700, calculated
42000
-
x * 42000, Erf2
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
palmitoylation
enzyme undergoes autoacylation; enzyme undergoes autoacylation
additional information
-
isoform DHHC3 is palmitoylated at the cysteine residue in the DHHC motif
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
20
-
purified enzyme, 30 min, stable up to
35
-
about, purufued enzyme, 30 min, 50% activity remaining
60
-
purified enzyme, 30 min, inactivation
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Akr1p is purified from yeast to apparent homogeneity
-
native enzyme 120fold by anion exchange and hydroxylapatite chromatography
native enzyme from brain membranes partially by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography
-
partially, from placental membranes by anion exchange chromatography
-
recombinant FLAG- and His6-tagged DHHC2 from Sf9 cells by nickel and FLAG affinity chromatography to near homogeneity
-
recombinant FLAG- and His6-tagged wild-type and C157S mutant DHHC3 from Sf9 cells by nickel and FLAG affinity chromatography to near homogeneity
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
24 PAT genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree, expression of GFP-tagged PATs in yeast mutant cells; 24 PAT genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree, expression of GFP-tagged PATs in yeast mutant cells; 24 PAT genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparison