BRENDA - Enzyme Database
show all sequences of 1.17.1.3

Biosynthesis of flavan 3-ols by leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductases and anthocyanidin reductases in leaves of grape (Vitis vinifera L.), apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) and other crops

Pfeiffer, J.; Kuehnel, C.; Brandt, J.; Duy, D.; Punyasiri, P.A.; Forkmann, G.; Fischer, T.C.; Plant Physiol. Biochem. 44, 323-334 (2006)

Data extracted from this reference:

Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Malus domestica
Q5D7Y1
isoform LAR2
-
Malus domestica
Q5D7Y2
isoform LAR1
-
Vitis vinifera
Q3S9L6
isoform LAR2
-
Vitis vinifera
Q4W2K5
isoform LAR1
-
Source Tissue
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
leaf
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development; both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 show decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development
Malus domestica
-
leaf
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development; both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development
Vitis vinifera
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Vitis vinifera
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Malus domestica
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Vitis vinifera
? + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
substrate only for isoform LAR2
676650
Malus domestica
? + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
leucodelphinidin + NADPH
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Vitis vinifera
? + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
leucodelphinidin + NADPH
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Malus domestica
? + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
luteoforol + NADPH
i.e. 3-deoxyleucocyanidin, both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Vitis vinifera
luteoliflavan + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
luteoforol + NADPH
i.e. 3-deoxyleucocyanidin, both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Malus domestica
luteoliflavan + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [°C]
Commentary
Organism
30
-
-
Malus domestica
37
-
-
Malus domestica
37
-
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2; both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
Vitis vinifera
pH Range
pH Minimum
pH Maximum
Commentary
Organism
6
7
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2; both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
Malus domestica
6
7
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2; both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
Vitis vinifera
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
leaf
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development
Malus domestica
-
leaf
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 show decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development
Malus domestica
-
leaf
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development
Vitis vinifera
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Vitis vinifera
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Malus domestica
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Vitis vinifera
? + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
substrate only for isoform LAR2
676650
Malus domestica
? + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
leucodelphinidin + NADPH
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Vitis vinifera
? + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
leucodelphinidin + NADPH
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Malus domestica
? + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
luteoforol + NADPH
i.e. 3-deoxyleucocyanidin, both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Vitis vinifera
luteoliflavan + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
luteoforol + NADPH
i.e. 3-deoxyleucocyanidin, both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
676650
Malus domestica
luteoliflavan + NADP+ + H2O
-
-
-
?
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [°C]
Commentary
Organism
30
-
-
Malus domestica
37
-
-
Malus domestica
37
-
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
Vitis vinifera
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Minimum
pH Maximum
Commentary
Organism
6
7
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
Malus domestica
6
7
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
Vitis vinifera
Other publictions for EC 1.17.1.3
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
746163
Wang
Evolutionary and functional c ...
Camellia sinensis
Planta
247
139-154
2018
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
15
-
-
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
3
9
-
-
-
743899
Kumar
Pyramiding of tea dihydroflav ...
Camellia sinensis
3 Biotech
7
177
2017
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
745825
Zhao
Metabolic characterization of ...
Camellia sinensis
Molecules
22
E2241
2017
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
745634
Matsui
Isolation and characterizatio ...
Fagopyrum esculentum
J. Plant Physiol.
205
41-47
2016
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
24
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
3
-
-
-
745869
Liu
A role for leucoanthocyanidin ...
Medicago truncatula, Medicago truncatula ecotype R108
Nat. Plants
2
16182
2016
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
6
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
6
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
3
3
1
-
-
746116
Nemesio-Gorriz
Different alleles of a gene e ...
Picea abies
Plant Physiol.
171
2671-2681
2016
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
744993
Liao
Molecular characterization of ...
Malus asiatica, Malus asiatica Nakai, Malus domestica, Malus prunifolia, Malus sikkimensis
Front. Plant Sci.
6
243
2015
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
12
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12
15
-
-
-
745035
Wen
Accumulation of flavanols and ...
Vitis vinifera
Genet. Mol. Res.
14
7687-7695
2015
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
4
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
4
-
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
728635
Xiao
Transcriptome and biochemical ...
Gossypium hirsutum
PLoS ONE
9
e86344
2014
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
746499
Kim
Transcripts of anthocyanidin ...
Fagopyrum tataricum
ScientificWorldJournal
2014
726567
2014
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
3
-
-
-
726337
Wang
Isolation and characterization ...
Populus trichocarpa
PLoS ONE
8
e64664
2013
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
727256
Liu
Proanthocyanidin synthesis in ...
Theobroma cacao
BMC Plant Biol.
13
202
2013
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
746103
Pang
Mewan, K.M.; Sumner, L.W.; Yu ...
Camellia sinensis
Plant Physiol.
161
1103-1116
2013
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
728054
Yuan
Molecular cloning and characte ...
Populus trichocarpa
J. Exp. Bot.
63
2513-2524
2012
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
-
-
714393
Wang
-
Isolation and expression of ge ...
Diospyros kaki, Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
Biol. Plant.
54
707-710
2010
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
715907
Mauge
Crystal structure and catalyti ...
Vitis vinifera
J. Mol. Biol.
397
1079-1091
2010
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
716027
Lacampagne
-
Involvement of abscisic acid i ...
Vitis vinifera
J. Plant Growth Regul.
29
81-90
2010
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
700789
Gagne
Leucoanthocyanidin reductase a ...
Vitis vinifera
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
47
282-290
2009
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
6
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
676629
Paolocci
Ectopic expression of a basic ...
Lotus corniculatus
Plant Physiol.
143
504-516
2007
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
676650
Pfeiffer
Biosynthesis of flavan 3-ols b ...
Malus domestica, Vitis vinifera
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
44
323-334
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
15
-
3
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
15
-
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
676588
Bogs
Proanthocyanidin synthesis and ...
Vitis vinifera
Plant Physiol.
139
652-663
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
654366
Xie
Anthocyanidin reductases from ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
422
91-102
2004
-
-
2
-
-
-
8
2
-
1
-
4
-
4
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
12
-
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
2
3
-
-
-
-
8
-
2
-
1
-
4
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
12
-
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
654372
Punyasiri
Flavonoid biosynthesis in the ...
Camellia sinensis
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
431
22-30
2004
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
6
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
-
6
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
6
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
636457
Tanner
Proanthocyanidin biosynthesis ...
Desmodium uncinatum
J. Biol. Chem.
278
31647-31656
2003
-
-
1
1
-
-
15
6
-
-
2
3
-
8
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
-
8
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
2
3
1
-
-
-
16
1
8
-
-
4
3
-
-
-
1
-
2
2
-
8
2
1
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
636459
Xie
Role of anthocyanidin reductas ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula
Science
299
396-399
2003
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
636455
Joseph
-
Proanthocyanidin synthesis in ...
Onobrychis viciifolia
Aust. J. Plant Physiol.
25
271-278
1998
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
636458
Tanner
Synthesis of 3,4-cis[3H]leucoc ...
Hordeum vulgare, Onobrychis viciifolia
Anal. Biochem.
209
274-277
1993
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
4
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
4
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
347999
Stafford
Flavan-3-ol biosynthesis. The ...
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Plant Physiol.
76
184-186
1984
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-