Information on EC 1.1.99.21 - D-sorbitol dehydrogenase (acceptor)

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Alphaproteobacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.1.99.21
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
D-sorbitol dehydrogenase (acceptor)
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
D-sorbitol + acceptor = L-sorbose + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
; a flavoprotein, FAD
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
redox reaction
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-
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reduction
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
2-keto-L-gulonate biosynthesis
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L-ascorbate biosynthesis III
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ascorbate metabolism
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Fructose and mannose metabolism
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
D-sorbitol:acceptor 1-oxidoreductase
A flavoprotein (FAD).
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
86178-94-1
not distinguished from EC 1.1.1.15 in Chemical Abstracts
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
small and large subunits, SldB and SldA
Q70JP0 AND Q70JN9
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
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mutation of His302 results in the denaturation of protein structure and loss of stability
metabolism
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membrane-bound D-sorbitol dehydrogenase is involved in the biotransformation of D-sorbitol to L-sorbose
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1-(2-hydroxyethyl)amino-1-deoxy-D-sorbitol + acceptor
6-(2-hydroxyethyl)amino-6-deoxy-L-sorbose + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
1-benzyloxycarbonylamino-1-deoxy-D-sorbitol + acceptor
N-benzyloxycarbonyl-6-amino-L-sorbose + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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D-arabitol + acceptor
D-xylulose + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucitol + NAD+
D-fructose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
D-gluconate + acceptor
5-keto-D-gluconate + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-mannitol + acceptor
? + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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oxidation at 5% the rate of D-sorbitol
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?
D-mannitol + acceptor
D-fructose + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
D-sorbitol + acceptor
L-sorbose + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
D-sorbitol + acceptor
sorbose + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
D-sorbitol + NADP+
L-sorbose + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
D-sorbitol + phenazine methosulfate
?
show the reaction diagram
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the catalytic reaction follows an ordered Bi Bi mechanism, the native mSLDH bears two different substrate-binding sites, one for ubiquinone using as electron acceptor and the other for D-sorbitol, in addition to PQQ-binding and Mg2+-binding sites in the catalytic center
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?
D-sorbitol + ubiquinone-2
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
glycerol + acceptor
dihydroxyacetone + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
L-glucitol + NAD+
D-sorbose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
meso-erythritol + acceptor
L-erythrulose + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
ribitol + acceptor
? + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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-
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-
?
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
D-glucitol + NAD+
D-fructose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
D-sorbitol + acceptor
L-sorbose + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
D-sorbitol + NADP+
L-sorbose + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
L-glucitol + NAD+
D-sorbose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
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acts in vitro as acceptor together with phenazine methosulfate
cytochrome c
additional information
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
KCl
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activation
additional information
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Mg2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ ions show no stimulatory influence on GoSLDH activity
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
D-sorbose
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non-competitive inhibition, sorbitol or phenazine methosulfate as substrates
additional information
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EDTA treatment does not affect the initial enzyme activity
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
16.8 - 38.9
D-sorbitol
0.0882
NADP+
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pH 10.0, 25C
0.0314
phenazine methosulfate
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0.0257
ubiquinone-2
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additional information
additional information
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protein-ligand molecular docking and thermodynamics, overview
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TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3820
D-sorbitol
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pH 10.0, 25C
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
98.1
D-sorbitol
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pH 10.0, 25C
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
3570
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purified recombinant enzyme, with D-sorbitol using NADP+ as a coenzyme, pH 10.0, 25C
additional information
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Gluconobacter oxydans G624 shows SLDH activity of 43.2 U/mL and a 20% conversion yield from D-sorbitol to L-sorbose at 18 h of fermentation
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6
Q70JP0 AND Q70JN9
assay at
10
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oxidation reaction
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.5 - 11
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activity range, profile overview
9
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about 50% of activity at pH 5.0
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
70
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oxidation reaction
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
20 - 80
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activity range, profile overview
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
17000
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1 * 63000 + 1 * 51000 + 1 * 17000, dissociation into 3 components, a flavoprotein (MW 63000), a cytochrome c (MW 51000) and an unknown polypeptide (MW 17000), SDS-PAGE
51000
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1 * 63000 + 1 * 51000 + 1 * 17000, dissociation into 3 components, a flavoprotein (MW 63000), a cytochrome c (MW 51000) and an unknown polypeptide (MW 17000), SDS-PAGE
63000
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1 * 63000 + 1 * 51000 + 1 * 17000, dissociation into 3 components, a flavoprotein (MW 63000), a cytochrome c (MW 51000) and an unknown polypeptide (MW 17000), SDS-PAGE
80000
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x * 80000 (subunit SldA, calculated: 81730 Da), SDS-PAGE
131000
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calculated sum of each MW of the 3 subunits
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
sitting drop vapor diffusion method, using 1.4 M NaH2PO4/K2HPO4 pH 5.6
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TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
47
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melting temperature
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
D-sorbitol stabilizes during solubilization and purification
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ionic detergents, such as cetylpyridinium chloride, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium stearate, inactivate
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Triton X-100, best detergent for solubilization
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STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
5C, 50% loss of activity overnight
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5C, storage for several months leads to cytochrome c decomposition
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stable at 80C for more than two months in the presence of 0.1% Tween-20
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
by cell disruption and ultracentrifugation
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by CM-cellulose and sephacryl HR 400 column chromatography
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ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration
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metal affinity column chromatography
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recombinant His6-tagged wild-type and mutant enzymes from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)-CodonPlus RIL
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold (DE3) cells
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gene sldh, subcloning in Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha, recombinant expression of His6-tagged wild-type and mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)-CodonPlus RIL
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gene sldhAB, enzyme overexpression in an industrial strain Gluconobacter oxydans WSH-003 with a strong promoter PtufB, subcloning in Escherichia coli strain JM109, quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis
Q70JP0 AND Q70JN9
in Escherichia coli, plasmids harboring the disrupted gene are introduced into Gluconobacter frateurii THD32 by electroporation
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
transcriptional regulator SldR induces the expression of the enzyme after L-sorbose has accumulated
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
synthesis
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