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EC Number
General Information
Commentary
Reference
evolution
genes ATICS1 and AtICS2 are both located on chromosome 1 on different sides of the centromere, and they are likely a result of a duplication event, since they are bordered by similar genes. At the DNA sequence level, the protein-coding regions of the two genes share a high degree of similarity, but this does not extend into the untranslated regions; genes ATICS1 and AtICS2 are both located on chromosome 1 on different sides of the centromere, and they are likely a result of a duplication event, since they are bordered by similar genes. At the DNA sequence level, the protein-coding regions of the two genes share a high degree of similarity, but this does not extend into the untranslated regions
evolution
PchA is a member of the MST, i.e. menaquinone, siderophore and tryptophan, family of enzymes
evolution
the predicted ICS protein has high amino acid sequence identity to its orthologues and possesses a conserved chorismate binding site belonging to the supergene family of chorismate binding proteins
malfunction
mutation sed111 in the gene salicylic acid induction-deficient 2 (SID2), which encodes isochorismate synthase 1. Mutation sed111 belongs to a series of mutants called suppressor of esd4 (sed), which delay flowering, enhance growth and reduce hyperaccumulation of SUMO conjugates. Mutations in the SUMO protease early in short days 4 (ESD4) cause hyperaccumulation of conjugates formed between SUMO and its substrates, and phenotypically are associated with extreme early flowering and impaired growth. Elevated salicylic acid levels conferred by increased expression of isochorismate synthase 1 contribute to hyperaccumulation of SUMO1 conjugates in the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant early in short days 4. Compared to wild-type plants, esd4 contains higher levels of SID2 mRNA and about threefold more salicylate, whereas sed111 contains lower salicylate levels
malfunction
significant reduction in the expression of ICS1 during immune responses is observed in the tcp8/tcp9 double mutant
malfunction
significant reduction in the expression of ICS1 during immune responses is observed in the tcp8/tcp9 double mutant; the redox status of the plastoquinone pool in knockout mutant ics1 shows significant variation depending on the leaf age. Mutant plants treated with a phylloquinone precursor display symptoms of phenotypic reversion towards the wild type. The ics1 mutant also shows altered thylakoid structure with an increased number of stacked thylakoids per granum
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malfunction
the redox status of the plastoquinone pool in knockout mutant ics1 shows significant variation depending on the leaf age. Mutant plants treated with a phylloquinone precursor display symptoms of phenotypic reversion towards the wild type. The ics1 mutant also shows altered thylakoid structure with an increased number of stacked thylakoids per granum
metabolism
enzyme ICS does not act as isochorismate pyruvate lyase (IPL, EC 4.2.99.21) and bifunctional salicylate synthase, it does not convert chorismate into salicylate. In Arabidopsis thaliana, salicylate is synthesized from chorismic acid, derived from the shikimic acid pathway, occuring in the plastid; enzyme ICS does not act as isochorismate pyruvate lyase (IPL, EC 4.2.99.21) and bifunctional salicylate synthase, it does not convert chorismate into salicylate. In Arabidopsis thaliana, salicylate is synthesized from chorismic acid, derived from the shikimic acid pathway, occuring in the plastid
metabolism
isochorismate synthase 1 is a key enzyme in salicylate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. The TCP family transcription factor AtTCP8 is a regulator of isozyme ICS1, it binds to a typical TCP binding site in the ICS1 promoter. Expression patterns of TCP8 and its corresponding gene TCP9 largely overlap with ICS1 under pathogen attack. Strong interactions between TCP8 and SAR deficient 1 (SARD1), WRKY family transcription factor 28 (WRKY28), NAC (NAM/ATAF1, ATAF2/CUC2) family transcription factor 019 (NAC019), as well as among TCP8, TCP9 and TCP20, implying a complex coordinated regulatory mechanism underlying ICS1 expression. There is a strong negative regulatory region between -128 and -316 bp, and the binding of repressor(s) to this region may be necessary for suppression of ICS1 expression during plant growth and development, TCP8 can bind at this region, while TCP5, TCP11 and TCP19 appear not to bind to the promoter region. TCP8 specifically binds to the TCP binding site in the ICS1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. Trans-activation capability of TCP8. TCP8/TCP9 positively regulate ICS1 expression with redundancy upon pathogen infection, and TCPs are involved in maintaining ICS1 expression, yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) screening and transactivation activity assay, detailed overview
metabolism
key enzyme in the isochorismate pathway
Results 1 - 10 of 31 > >>