BRENDA - Enzyme Database

Functional characterization of various algal carotenoid ketolases reveals that ketolating zeaxanthin efficiently is essential for high production of astaxanthin in transgenic Arabidopsis

Zhong, Y.; Huang, J.; Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Xu, Z.; Sandmann, G.; Chen, F.; J. Exp. Bot. 62, 3659-3669 (2011)

Data extracted from this reference:

Cloned(Commentary)
EC Number
Commentary
Organism
1.14.99.63
expression in Escherichia coli
Haematococcus lacustris
1.14.99.64
expression in Escherichia coli; transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the beta-carotene ketolase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii develop orange leaves which accumulate astaxanthin up to 2 mg/g dry weight with a 1.8fold increase in total carotenoids. The ketolases with high activity of converting zeaxanthin to astaxanthin triggers transgenic Arabidopsis to accumulate large amounts of astaxanthin in leaves and seeds
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
1.14.99.64
expression in Escherichia coli; transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the beta-carotene ketolase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii develop orange leaves which accumulate astaxanthin up to 2 mg/g dry weight with a 1.8fold increase in total carotenoids. The ketolases with high activity of converting zeaxanthin to astaxanthin triggers transgenic Arabidopsis to accumulate large amounts of astaxanthin in leaves and seeds
Chromochloris zofingiensis
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
EC Number
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
1.14.99.64
adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
Chromochloris zofingiensis
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
Chromochloris zofingiensis
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
?
Organism
EC Number
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
1.14.99.63
Haematococcus lacustris
E2DRF9
-
-
1.14.99.64
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Q4VKB4
-
-
1.14.99.64
Chromochloris zofingiensis
Q5U931
-
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
EC Number
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
1.14.99.63
additional information
the enzyme shows low (about 1%) conversion rate from zeaxanthin to astaxanthin
748319
Haematococcus lacustris
?
-
-
-
-
1.14.99.64
adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
748319
Chromochloris zofingiensis
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
748319
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme shows high (about 85%) conversion rate from zeaxanthin to astaxanthin
748319
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme shows moderate (about 38%) conversion rate from zeaxanthin to astaxanthin
748319
Chromochloris zofingiensis
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
748319
Chromochloris zofingiensis
adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
748319
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme shows high (about 85%) conversion rate from zeaxanthin to astaxanthin
748319
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme shows moderate (about 38%) conversion rate from zeaxanthin to astaxanthin
748319
Chromochloris zofingiensis
adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
EC Number
Commentary
Organism
1.14.99.63
expression in Escherichia coli
Haematococcus lacustris
1.14.99.64
expression in Escherichia coli; transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the beta-carotene ketolase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii develop orange leaves which accumulate astaxanthin up to 2 mg/g dry weight with a 1.8fold increase in total carotenoids. The ketolases with high activity of converting zeaxanthin to astaxanthin triggers transgenic Arabidopsis to accumulate large amounts of astaxanthin in leaves and seeds
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
1.14.99.64
expression in Escherichia coli; transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the beta-carotene ketolase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii develop orange leaves which accumulate astaxanthin up to 2 mg/g dry weight with a 1.8fold increase in total carotenoids. The ketolases with high activity of converting zeaxanthin to astaxanthin triggers transgenic Arabidopsis to accumulate large amounts of astaxanthin in leaves and seeds
Chromochloris zofingiensis
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
EC Number
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
1.14.99.64
adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
Chromochloris zofingiensis
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
Chromochloris zofingiensis
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
?
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
EC Number
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
1.14.99.63
additional information
the enzyme shows low (about 1%) conversion rate from zeaxanthin to astaxanthin
748319
Haematococcus lacustris
?
-
-
-
-
1.14.99.64
adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
748319
Chromochloris zofingiensis
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
748319
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme shows high (about 85%) conversion rate from zeaxanthin to astaxanthin
748319
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme shows moderate (about 38%) conversion rate from zeaxanthin to astaxanthin
748319
Chromochloris zofingiensis
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
748319
Chromochloris zofingiensis
adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
748319
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme shows high (about 85%) conversion rate from zeaxanthin to astaxanthin
748319
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.99.64
zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2
the enzyme shows moderate (about 38%) conversion rate from zeaxanthin to astaxanthin
748319
Chromochloris zofingiensis
adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
-
-
-
?
General Information
EC Number
General Information
Commentary
Organism
1.14.99.64
metabolism
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
1.14.99.64
metabolism
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
Chromochloris zofingiensis
General Information (protein specific)
EC Number
General Information
Commentary
Organism
1.14.99.64
metabolism
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
1.14.99.64
metabolism
the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of astaxanthin
Chromochloris zofingiensis