BRENDA - Enzyme Database show

Spermidine inversely influences surface interactions and planktonic growth in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

Wang, Y.; Kim, S.H.; Natarajan, R.; Heindl, J.E.; Bruger, E.L.; Waters, C.M.; Michael, A.J.; Fuqua, C.; J. Bacteriol. 198, 2682-2691 (2016)

Data extracted from this reference:

Cloned(Commentary)
EC Number
Commentary
Organism
1.5.1.43
gene Atu4170, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis of wild-type enzyme mutant genes and enzymes, respectively
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Engineering
EC Number
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
1.5.1.43
additional information
transposon mutagenesis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 to knockdown enzyme CASDH performed with the mariner minitransposon Himar1, phenotype, overview. In-frame CASDH and CASDC gene deletion mutants have severe growth defects in minimal medium but are rescued in this respect by exogenous addition of exogenous polyamines that supply the 1,3-diaminopropane group, including spermidine. The severe growth defect of the CASDH and CASDC mutants also manifested itself as a severe biofilm deficiency
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
EC Number
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
1.5.1.43
L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde + propane-1,3-diamine + NADPH + H+
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
-
carboxynorspermidine + H2O + NADP+
?
-
?
1.5.1.43
L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde + putrescine + NADPH + H+
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
-
carboxyspermidine + H2O + NADP+
?
-
?
Organism
EC Number
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
1.5.1.43
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
A9CG66
-
-
4.1.1.96
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
A9CG65
-
-
4.1.1.96
Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58
A9CG65
-
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
EC Number
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
1.5.1.43
L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde + propane-1,3-diamine + NADPH + H+
-
742792
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
carboxynorspermidine + H2O + NADP+
?
-
-
?
1.5.1.43
L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde + putrescine + NADPH + H+
-
742792
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
carboxyspermidine + H2O + NADP+
?
-
-
?
Cofactor
EC Number
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
1.5.1.43
NADPH
-
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
EC Number
Commentary
Organism
1.5.1.43
gene Atu4170, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis of wild-type enzyme mutant genes and enzymes, respectively
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Cofactor (protein specific)
EC Number
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
1.5.1.43
NADPH
-
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Engineering (protein specific)
EC Number
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
1.5.1.43
additional information
transposon mutagenesis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 to knockdown enzyme CASDH performed with the mariner minitransposon Himar1, phenotype, overview. In-frame CASDH and CASDC gene deletion mutants have severe growth defects in minimal medium but are rescued in this respect by exogenous addition of exogenous polyamines that supply the 1,3-diaminopropane group, including spermidine. The severe growth defect of the CASDH and CASDC mutants also manifested itself as a severe biofilm deficiency
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
EC Number
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
1.5.1.43
L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde + propane-1,3-diamine + NADPH + H+
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
-
carboxynorspermidine + H2O + NADP+
?
-
?
1.5.1.43
L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde + putrescine + NADPH + H+
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
-
carboxyspermidine + H2O + NADP+
?
-
?
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
EC Number
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
1.5.1.43
L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde + propane-1,3-diamine + NADPH + H+
-
742792
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
carboxynorspermidine + H2O + NADP+
?
-
-
?
1.5.1.43
L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde + putrescine + NADPH + H+
-
742792
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
carboxyspermidine + H2O + NADP+
?
-
-
?
General Information
EC Number
General Information
Commentary
Organism
1.5.1.43
malfunction
accumulation of the precursor putrescine in the CASDH mutant The mutant accumulates homospermidine, which requires a homospermidine synthase (hss) homologue. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants with diminished levels of the polyamine spermidine are stimulated for biofilm formation, and exogenous provision of spermidine decreases biofilm formation. Spermidine is also essential for Agrobacterium tumefaciens growth, but the related polyamine norspermidine exogenously rescues growth and does not diminish biofilm formation, the growth requirement and biofilm control are separable. Exogenous spermidine and norspermidine restore prototrophic growth for CASDH and CASDC mutants, but only spermidine inhibits biofilm formation. CASDH and CASDC mutants accumulate homospermidine via a homospermidine synthase homologue
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
1.5.1.43
metabolism
in an alternative pathway (alternate to the pathway via S-adenosyl-L-methionine), putrescine is first converted into carboxyspermidine with the precursor L-aspartate beta-semialdehyde by the enzyme carboxyspermidine dehydrogenase (CASDH), and then carboxyspermidine is converted to spermidine by carboxyspermidine decarboxylase (CASDC). Spermidine is an essential metabolite in Agrobacterium tumefaciens and is synthesized from putrescine via the stepwise actions of carboxyspermidine dehydrogenase (CASDH) and carboxyspermidine decarboxylase (CASDC)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
1.5.1.43
physiological function
spermidine is an essential metabolite in Agrobacterium tumefaciens and is synthesized from putrescine via the stepwise actions of carboxyspermidine dehydrogenase (CASDH) and carboxyspermidine decarboxylase (CASDC). Spermidine is essential for Agrobacterium tumefaciens growth, growth requirement and biofilm control are separable. Polyamine control of biofilm formation appears to function via effects on the cellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate, regulating the transition from a freeliving to a surface-attached lifestyle
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
4.1.1.96
physiological function
a deletion mutant shows severe growth defects in minimal medium and a severe biofilm deficiency. Exogenous spermidine and norspermidine restore prototrophic growth for CASDC mutants, but only spermidine inhibits biofilm formation. The CASDC mutants accumulate homospermidine via a homospermidine synthase homologue
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
General Information (protein specific)
EC Number
General Information
Commentary
Organism
1.5.1.43
malfunction
accumulation of the precursor putrescine in the CASDH mutant The mutant accumulates homospermidine, which requires a homospermidine synthase (hss) homologue. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants with diminished levels of the polyamine spermidine are stimulated for biofilm formation, and exogenous provision of spermidine decreases biofilm formation. Spermidine is also essential for Agrobacterium tumefaciens growth, but the related polyamine norspermidine exogenously rescues growth and does not diminish biofilm formation, the growth requirement and biofilm control are separable. Exogenous spermidine and norspermidine restore prototrophic growth for CASDH and CASDC mutants, but only spermidine inhibits biofilm formation. CASDH and CASDC mutants accumulate homospermidine via a homospermidine synthase homologue
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
1.5.1.43
metabolism
in an alternative pathway (alternate to the pathway via S-adenosyl-L-methionine), putrescine is first converted into carboxyspermidine with the precursor L-aspartate beta-semialdehyde by the enzyme carboxyspermidine dehydrogenase (CASDH), and then carboxyspermidine is converted to spermidine by carboxyspermidine decarboxylase (CASDC). Spermidine is an essential metabolite in Agrobacterium tumefaciens and is synthesized from putrescine via the stepwise actions of carboxyspermidine dehydrogenase (CASDH) and carboxyspermidine decarboxylase (CASDC)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
1.5.1.43
physiological function
spermidine is an essential metabolite in Agrobacterium tumefaciens and is synthesized from putrescine via the stepwise actions of carboxyspermidine dehydrogenase (CASDH) and carboxyspermidine decarboxylase (CASDC). Spermidine is essential for Agrobacterium tumefaciens growth, growth requirement and biofilm control are separable. Polyamine control of biofilm formation appears to function via effects on the cellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate, regulating the transition from a freeliving to a surface-attached lifestyle
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
4.1.1.96
physiological function
a deletion mutant shows severe growth defects in minimal medium and a severe biofilm deficiency. Exogenous spermidine and norspermidine restore prototrophic growth for CASDC mutants, but only spermidine inhibits biofilm formation. The CASDC mutants accumulate homospermidine via a homospermidine synthase homologue
Agrobacterium tumefaciens