BRENDA - Enzyme Database
show all sequences of 4.1.1.18

Characterization of a whole-cell biotransformation using a constitutive lysine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli for the high-level production of cadaverine from industrial grade L-lysine

Shin, J.; Joo, J.C.; Lee, E.; Hyun, S.M.; Kim, H.J.; Park, S.J.; Yang, Y.H.; Park, K.; Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 185, 909-924 (2018)

Data extracted from this reference:

Application
Application
Commentary
Organism
synthesis
CadA is the conventional cadaverine producer; the enzyme EcLdcC can be used for whole-cell biotransformation (a whole-cell biocatalyst) using a constitutive lysine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli for the high-level production of cadaverine from industrial grade L-lysine. It is more effective in comparison to EcCadA. Cadaverine is used for synthesis of bio-polyamides
Escherichia coli
Cloned(Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
gene cadA, recombinant induced expression of lysine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) for the high-level production of cadaverine from industrial grade L-lysine; gene ldcC, recombinant constitutive expression of lysine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) for the high-level production of cadaverine from industrial grade L-lysine
Escherichia coli
Engineering
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
additional information
recombinant Escherichia coli-overexpressing CadA produces cadaverine from crude L-lysine solution. Constitutive lysine decarboxylase EcLdcC retains a higher cadaverine yield after being reused 10 times at acidic and alkaline pH values than that of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain overexpressing the inducible lysine carboxylase CadA, the conventional cadaverine producer. Although the soluble expression level of LdcC in Escherichia coli is less than that of CadA, LdcC is active over a broader pH range (pH 5-9) and exhibits less substrate inhibition than CadA, indicating that LdcC is a more suitable biocatalyst than CadA for the direct synthesis of cadaverine from highly concentrated lysine; recombinant Escherichia coli-overexpressing LdcC (EcLdcC) produces cadaverine from crude L-lysine solution. EcLdcC retains a higher cadaverine yield after being reused 10 times at acidic and alkaline pH values than that of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain overexpressing an inducible lysine carboxylase (CadA), a conventional cadaverine producer. Although the soluble expression level of LdcC in Escherichia coli is less than that of CadA, LdcC is active over a broader pH range (pH 5-9) and exhibits less substrate inhibition than CadA, indicating that LdcC is a more suitable biocatalyst than CadA for the direct synthesis of cadaverine from highly concentrated lysine. Optimization of the EcLdcC-catalyzed whole-cell biotransformation, overview
Escherichia coli
Inhibitors
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
L-lysine
substrate inhibition at high concentrations
Escherichia coli
additional information
enzyme LdcC shows no or poor substrate inhibition by L-lysine
Escherichia coli
Localization
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
soluble
-
Escherichia coli
-
-
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
L-lysine
Escherichia coli
-
cadaverine + CO2
-
-
?
L-lysine
Escherichia coli K-12 / MG1655
-
cadaverine + CO2
-
-
?
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Escherichia coli
P0A9H3
-
-
Escherichia coli
P52095
-
-
Escherichia coli K-12 / MG1655
P0A9H3
-
-
Escherichia coli K-12 / MG1655
P52095
-
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
L-lysine
-
746801
Escherichia coli
cadaverine + CO2
-
-
-
?
L-lysine
-
746801
Escherichia coli K-12 / MG1655
cadaverine + CO2
-
-
-
?
Temperature Optimum [C]
Temperature Optimum [C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [C]
Commentary
Organism
37
-
in vivo assay at; in vivo assay at
Escherichia coli
52
-
recombinant enzyme
Escherichia coli
pH Optimum
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
5
6
-
Escherichia coli
6
7
in vitro
Escherichia coli
6
-
in vivo
Escherichia coli
pH Range
pH Minimum
pH Maximum
Commentary
Organism
additional information
-
CadA is rapidly inactivated as the pH increases during the decarboxylation of lysine because it has an acidic optimum pH 5.0-6.0
Escherichia coli
4
10
activity range
Escherichia coli
Cofactor
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
; best at 0.01 mM
Escherichia coli
Application (protein specific)
Application
Commentary
Organism
synthesis
CadA is the conventional cadaverine producer
Escherichia coli
synthesis
the enzyme EcLdcC can be used for whole-cell biotransformation (a whole-cell biocatalyst) using a constitutive lysine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli for the high-level production of cadaverine from industrial grade L-lysine. It is more effective in comparison to EcCadA. Cadaverine is used for synthesis of bio-polyamides
Escherichia coli
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
gene cadA, recombinant induced expression of lysine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) for the high-level production of cadaverine from industrial grade L-lysine
Escherichia coli
gene ldcC, recombinant constitutive expression of lysine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) for the high-level production of cadaverine from industrial grade L-lysine
Escherichia coli
Cofactor (protein specific)
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
best at 0.01 mM
Escherichia coli
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
Escherichia coli
Engineering (protein specific)
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
additional information
recombinant Escherichia coli-overexpressing CadA produces cadaverine from crude L-lysine solution. Constitutive lysine decarboxylase EcLdcC retains a higher cadaverine yield after being reused 10 times at acidic and alkaline pH values than that of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain overexpressing the inducible lysine carboxylase CadA, the conventional cadaverine producer. Although the soluble expression level of LdcC in Escherichia coli is less than that of CadA, LdcC is active over a broader pH range (pH 5-9) and exhibits less substrate inhibition than CadA, indicating that LdcC is a more suitable biocatalyst than CadA for the direct synthesis of cadaverine from highly concentrated lysine
Escherichia coli
additional information
recombinant Escherichia coli-overexpressing LdcC (EcLdcC) produces cadaverine from crude L-lysine solution. EcLdcC retains a higher cadaverine yield after being reused 10 times at acidic and alkaline pH values than that of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain overexpressing an inducible lysine carboxylase (CadA), a conventional cadaverine producer. Although the soluble expression level of LdcC in Escherichia coli is less than that of CadA, LdcC is active over a broader pH range (pH 5-9) and exhibits less substrate inhibition than CadA, indicating that LdcC is a more suitable biocatalyst than CadA for the direct synthesis of cadaverine from highly concentrated lysine. Optimization of the EcLdcC-catalyzed whole-cell biotransformation, overview
Escherichia coli
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
L-lysine
substrate inhibition at high concentrations
Escherichia coli
additional information
enzyme LdcC shows no or poor substrate inhibition by L-lysine
Escherichia coli
Localization (protein specific)
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
soluble
-
Escherichia coli
-
-
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
L-lysine
Escherichia coli
-
cadaverine + CO2
-
-
?
L-lysine
Escherichia coli K-12 / MG1655
-
cadaverine + CO2
-
-
?
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
L-lysine
-
746801
Escherichia coli
cadaverine + CO2
-
-
-
?
L-lysine
-
746801
Escherichia coli K-12 / MG1655
cadaverine + CO2
-
-
-
?
Temperature Optimum [C] (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [C]
Commentary
Organism
37
-
in vivo assay at
Escherichia coli
52
-
recombinant enzyme
Escherichia coli
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
5
6
-
Escherichia coli
6
7
in vitro
Escherichia coli
6
-
in vivo
Escherichia coli
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Minimum
pH Maximum
Commentary
Organism
additional information
-
CadA is rapidly inactivated as the pH increases during the decarboxylation of lysine because it has an acidic optimum pH 5.0-6.0
Escherichia coli
4
10
activity range
Escherichia coli
Expression
Organism
Commentary
Expression
Escherichia coli
pH-inducible CadA
up
General Information
General Information
Commentary
Organism
additional information
optimization of the EcLdcC-catalyzed whole-cell biotransformation, overview
Escherichia coli
General Information (protein specific)
General Information
Commentary
Organism
additional information
optimization of the EcLdcC-catalyzed whole-cell biotransformation, overview
Escherichia coli
Expression (protein specific)
Organism
Commentary
Expression
Escherichia coli
pH-inducible CadA
up
Other publictions for EC 4.1.1.18
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [C]
Temperature Range [C]
Temperature Stability [C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
746801
Shin
Characterization of a whole-c ...
Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli K-12 / MG1655
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
185
909-924
2018
-
1
1
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1
-
2
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1
-
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4
-
7
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4
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2
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3
2
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1
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2
2
2
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2
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2
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1
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4
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4
-
3
-
-
-
3
2
-
-
1
1
1
1
-
-
747396
Kou
Enhancement of the thermal an ...
Escherichia coli
Biotechnol. Lett.
40
719-727
2018
-
1
1
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
2
-
2
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2
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4
1
-
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1
1
1
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7
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-
-
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1
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1
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1
2
2
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2
-
2
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
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747444
Kmiec
The effect of Tetraneura ulmi ...
Ulmus pumila
Bull. Entomol. Res.
108
69-76
2018
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
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6
-
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3
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1
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3
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1
-
1
-
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-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
749226
Wang
Cloning, expression, and func ...
Morus alba
Protein Expr. Purif.
151
30-37
2018
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
1
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1
1
1
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1
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1
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1
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
749366
Kloss
Catalytically active inclusio ...
Escherichia coli
Sci. Rep.
8
5856
2018
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
1
-
-
-
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1
1
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1
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-
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-
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1
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-
1
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-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
747369
Hong
Simultaneously enhancing the ...
Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli K-12 / B
Biotechnol. J.
12
1700278
2017
-
-
1
-
6
-
1
4
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
1
-
1
3
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
6
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
1
1
-
1
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
3
748386
Park
Cadaverine production by usin ...
Escherichia coli
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
27
289-296
2017
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
-
2
1
1
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
-
2
1
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
749101
Sagong
Lysine decarboxylase with an ...
Selenomonas ruminantium
PLoS ONE
12
e0170163
2017
-
1
1
1
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
3
3
-
-
-
747594
Li
Heterologous expression and c ...
Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 8724 / DSM 4798 / JCM 20051 / NBRC 3318 / NRRL B-199 / KCTC 1686
Chin. J. Biotechnol.
32
527-531
2016
-
1
1
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
2
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
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1
1
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
747655
Li
-
Improved cadaverine productio ...
Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 6673
Eng. Life Sci.
16
299-305
2016
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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2
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1
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1
1
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1
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2
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-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
748382
Kim
Functional study of lysine de ...
Klebsiella aerogenes, Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 13048 / DSM 30053 / JCM 1235 / KCTC 2190 / NBRC 13534 / NCIMB 10102 / NCTC 10006
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
26
1586-1592
2016
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
6
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
12
-
1
1
-
1
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
12
-
2
2
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
748418
Kou
-
Characterization of a new lys ...
Aliivibrio salmonicida
J. Mol. Catal. B
133
S88-S94
2016
-
1
1
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
2
2
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
3
3
1
-
4
-
1
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
3
3
1
-
4
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
748513
Jeong
-
Alkaliphilic lysine decarboxy ...
Geobacillus thermodenitrificans
Korean J. Chem. Engin.
33
1530-1533
2016
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
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1
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
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1
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
749097
Sagong
Crystal structure and pyridox ...
Selenomonas ruminantium
PLoS ONE
11
e0166667
2016
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
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2
2
-
-
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-
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1
-
-
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1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
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1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
749315
Kandiah
Structural insights into the ...
Escherichia coli
Sci. Rep.
6
24601
2016
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
5
-
-
-
747358
Wang
-
Directed evolution and mutage ...
Hafnia alvei, Hafnia alvei AS1.1009
Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng.
20
439-446
2015
-
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1
-
4
-
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3
-
-
-
2
-
2
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1
-
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-
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2
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1
-
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2
1
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1
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1
1
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4
-
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-
3
-
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2
-
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-
1
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-
-
2
-
1
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
2
2
748377
Kim
Optimization of direct lysine ...
Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli K-12 / MG1655
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
25
1108-1113
2015
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
-
4
-
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-
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1
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1
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4
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4
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1
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1
1
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-
748380
Kim
A Liquid-based colorimetric a ...
Burkholderia thailandensis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli K-12 / MG1655, Klebsiella aerogenes, Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 13048 / DSM 30053 / JCM 1235 / KCTC 2190 / NBRC 13534 / NCIMB 10102 / NCTC 10006
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
25
2110-2115
2015
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3
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3
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5
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10
-
3
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3
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-
728013
Sugawara
Characterization of a pyridoxa ...
Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia sp. AIU 395
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
118
496-501
2014
-
-
-
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2
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2
1
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1
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1
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-
747039
Wang
In vitro inhibition of lysine ...
Bacterium cadaveris
Biochem. Pharmacol.
92
506-516
2014
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-
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11
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1
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1
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11
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1
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1
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1
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747357
Li
-
Cadaverine production by hete ...
Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 6673
Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng.
19
965-972
2014
-
1
1
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1
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2
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727766
Romano
Three-component lysine/ornithi ...
Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a, Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a ATCC 33222
J. Bacteriol.
195
1249-1254
2013
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7
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1
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1
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1
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1
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4
1
1
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1
1
1
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1
1
-
1
1
728183
Lohinai
Bacterial lysine decarboxylase ...
Eikenella corrodens
J. Periodontol.
83
1048-1056
2012
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1
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1
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728330
Burrell
Evolution of a novel lysine de ...
Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces coelicolor ATCC BAA-471
Mol. Microbiol.
86
485-499
2012
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2
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7
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6
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1
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1
1
-
2
2
714832
Kanjee
Linkage between the bacterial ...
Escherichia coli
EMBO J.
30
931-944
2011
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1
3
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5
1
1
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2
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3
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3
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1
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1
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1
1
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1
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1
1
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1
1
715142
Teng
-
The use of L-lysine decarboxyl ...
Bacterium cadaveris
Green Chem.
13
624-630
2011
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1
4
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1
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-
704086
Alvarez-Ordonez
Arginine and lysine decarboxyl ...
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium CECT 443
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
136
278-282
2010
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3
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3
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3
-
-
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-
-
1
-
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1
-
-
713611
Sempruch
Changes in activity of lysine ...
Secale cereale x Triticum aestivum
Acta Biol. Hung.
61
512-515
2010
-
-
-
-
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3
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4
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4
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1
-
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1
-
-
716768
El Bakkouri
Structure of RavA MoxR AAA+ pr ...
Escherichia coli
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
107
22499-22504
2010
-
-
-
1
-
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1
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1
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4
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1
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1
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1
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1
-
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-
-
690395
Ohe
Putative occurrence of lysine ...
Glycine max
Amino Acids
36
65-70
2009
-
-
-
-
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1
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2
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5
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1
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1
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5
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
690597
Tateno
Direct production of cadaverin ...
Escherichia coli
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
82
115-121
2009
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
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1
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4
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1
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1
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1
1
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1
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1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
690269
Alexopoulos
Crystallization and preliminar ...
Escherichia coli
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F
64
700-706
2008
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
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2
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1
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1
1
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1
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1
1
1
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1
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-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
680417
Tanaka
Lysine decarboxylase of Vibrio ...
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
J. Appl. Microbiol.
104
1283-1293
2007
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
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2
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
-
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-
-
-
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-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
680484
Moreau
The lysine decarboxylase CadA ...
Escherichia coli
J. Bacteriol.
189
2249-2261
2007
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
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4
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2
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1
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1
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-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
698370
Lee
Thalassococcus halodurans gen. ...
no activity in Thalassobius mediterraneus, no activity in Thalassobius mediterraneus XSM19, no activity in Thalassococcus halodurans, no activity in Thalassococcus halodurans UST050418-052, Shimia aestuarii, Shimia aestuarii JC2049
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
57
1919-1924
2007
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6
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
665713
Snider
Formation of a distinctive com ...
Escherichia coli
J. Biol. Chem.
281
1532-1546
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
1
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-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
680477
Kim
Lysine decarboxylase expressio ...
Vibrio vulnificus
J. Bacteriol.
188
8586-8592
2006
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
1
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-
-
1
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-
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-
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
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-
-
-
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-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
666850
Kukimoto-Niino
Crystal structures of possible ...
Thermus thermophilus, Thermus thermophilus HB8 / ATCC 27634 / DSM 579
Protein Sci.
13
3038-3042
2004
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
90
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
1
-
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-
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-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
698364
Lau
Loktanella hongkongensis sp. n ...
no activity in Loktanella hongkongensis
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
54
2281-2284
2004
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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-
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-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
656712
Levine
Identification of lysine decar ...
Eikenella corrodens
Microb. Pathog.
30
179-192
2001
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
655829
Takatsuka
Gene cloning and molecular cha ...
Selenomonas ruminantium
J. Bacteriol.
182
6732-6741
2000
-
-
1
-
11
-
-
23
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
22
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
11
-
-
-
-
23
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
22
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
654982
Takatsuka
Novel characteristics of Selen ...
Selenomonas ruminantium
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
63
1063-1069
1999
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
2
1
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
1
4
1
1
-
2
2
1
-
1
1
4
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
4
2
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
1
4
1
1
-
2
2
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
654984
Takatsuka
Identification of the amino ac ...
Selenomonas ruminantium
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
63
1843-1846
1999
-
-
-
-
11
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
37297
Kim
Purification and characterizat ...
Glycine max
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
354
40-46
1998
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
2
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
1
1
1
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
698361
Ruiz-Ponte
Roseobacter gallaeciensis sp. ...
no activity in Phaeobacter gallaeciensis BS107
Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.
48 Pt 2
537-542
1998
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
37299
Kikuchi
Characterization of a second l ...
Escherichia coli
J. Bacteriol.
179
4486-4492
1997
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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1
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1
1
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1
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1
1
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-
37298
Berkowitz
?-VINYLLYSINE AND ?-VINYLARGIN ...
Bacterium cadaveris
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
6
2151-2156
1996
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1
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1
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-
698360
Lafay
Roseobacter algicola sp. nov., ...
no activity in Marinovum algicola, no activity in Marinovum algicola ATCC 51442
Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.
45
290-296
1995
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2
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37300
Yamamoto
Purification and some properti ...
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus AQ 3627
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
39
3067-3070
1991
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2
4
1
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2
2
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4
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8
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1
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1
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1
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8
1
1
1
1
-
1
1
-
-
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-
37283
Beier
-
Lysine decarboxylase from Hafn ...
Hafnia alvei
Z. Naturforsch. C
42
1307-1312
1987
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1
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6
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1
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1
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1
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6
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1
1
1
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1
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37284
Pelosi
-
Lysine decarboxylase activity ...
Heimia salicifolia
Phytochemistry
25
2315-2319
1986
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4
1
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1
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3
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1
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1
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37285
Fecker
-
Cloning and characterization o ...
Hafnia alvei
Mol. Gen. Genet.
203
177-184
1986
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1
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1
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37286
Vienozinskiene
Lysine decarboxylase assay by ...
Escherichia coli
Anal. Biochem.
146
180-183
1985
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1
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2
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1
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1
-
1
-
1
1
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1
1
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-
-
37287
Poesoe
Inhibition of growth of Mycopl ...
Mycoplasma dispar
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
125
205-210
1984
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1
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4
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1
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37288
Schoofs
-
Lysine decarboxylase in plants ...
Anchusa italica, Arum maculatum, Asarum maculatum, Astragalus cicer, Astragalus glycyphyllos, Atropa belladonna, Baptisia australis, Calla palustris, Conium maculatum, Cytisus beanii, Cytisus canariensis, Cytisus scoparius, Dictamnus albus, Galega officinalis, Genista anglica, Genista hispanica, Genista lydia, Genista pilosa, Genista sagittalis, Genista tinctoria, Glycine max, Glycyrrhiza echinata, Laburnum alpinum, Laburnum anagyroides, Levisticum officinale, Lupinus albus, Lupinus luteus, Lupinus polyphyllus, Malva sylvestris, Medicago sativa, Melilotus albus, Mentha suaveolens, Menyanthes trifoliata, Nicotiana tabacum, Oxybasis rubra, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ruta graveolens, Sanguisorba officinalis, Saponaria officinalis, Sedum acre, Senecio fuchsii, Sophora tetraptera, Spinacia oleracea, Styphnolobium japonicum, Symphytum officinale, Trollius europaeus, Valeriana sambucifolia, Vicia faba
Phytochemistry
22
65-69
1983
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1
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50
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14
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51
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1
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14
-
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51
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37289
Boeker
Lysine decarboxylase (Escheric ...
Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli B / ATCC 11303
Methods Enzymol.
94
180-184
1983
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1
3
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3
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177
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6
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1
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6
1
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1
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37290
Kamio
Purification and properties of ...
Selenomonas ruminantium
J. Bacteriol.
153
658-664
1983
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1
1
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2
1
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5
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1
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4
1
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2
1
1
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1
1
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1
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4
1
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2
1
1
1
1
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1
1
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37296
Battersby
-
Studies of enzyme-mediated rea ...
Bacterium cadaveris
J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. I
1982
449-453
1982
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1
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37291
Hartmann
A chloroplast-localized lysine ...
Lupinus polyphyllus
FEBS Lett.
115
35-38
1980
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1
1
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1
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1
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37301
Pegg
Decarboxylation of ornithine a ...
Mus musculus, no activity in Rattus norvegicus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
568
416-427
1979
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4
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37292
Sabo
Chemical properties of Escheri ...
Escherichia coli
Biochemistry
13
670-676
1974
1
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1
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37293
Sabo
Purification and physical prop ...
Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli B / ATCC 11303
Biochemistry
13
662-670
1974
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1
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1
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1
2
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178
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1
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8
1
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2
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1
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8
1
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1
1
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37294
Soda
-
L-Lysine decarboxylase (Bacter ...
Bacterium cadaveris
Methods Enzymol.
17B
677-681
1971
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1
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5
2
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1
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1
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3
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1
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1
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5
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1
3
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1
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1
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-
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-
37295
Soda
Crystalline lysine decarboxyla ...
Bacterium cadaveris
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
34
34-39
1969
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1
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2
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