BRENDA - Enzyme Database
show all sequences of 2.4.1.212

Hyaluronan synthase 1: a mysterious enzyme with unexpected functions

Siiskonen, H.; Oikari, S.; Pasonen-Seppaenen, S.; Rilla, K.; Front. Immunol. 6, 43 (2015)

Data extracted from this reference:

Application
Application
Commentary
Organism
medicine
the role of HAS1 as a poor predictor in breast cancer, and is correlated with high relapse rate and short overall survival
Homo sapiens
Cloned(Commentary)
Cloned (Commentary)
Organism
gene HAS1, in addition to the full-length form, HAS1 has multiple transcript variants resulting from alternative splicing
Homo sapiens
Engineering
Protein Variants
Commentary
Organism
additional information
both COS-1 and MCF-7 cell lines have negligible endogenous hyaluronan production, and even overexpression of HAS1 enzymes does not cause prominent changes in it. Upon treatment with glucose or glucosamine, compounds that increase the amounts of hyaluronan substrates, the HAS1 enzyme is able to produce significant amounts of hyaluronan
Homo sapiens
KM Value [mM]
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
-
additional information
availability of substrate UDP-GlcNAc does not considerably influence the Km of Has1 toward UDP-GlcUA, whereas levels of UDP-GlcUA have a significant effect of the Km toward UDP-GlcNAc
Homo sapiens
Localization
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
cytoplasm
-
Homo sapiens
5737
-
cytoskeleton
-
Homo sapiens
5856
-
endoplasmic reticulum
-
Homo sapiens
5783
-
Golgi apparatus
-
Homo sapiens
5794
-
membrane
are integral membrane proteins with transmembrane domains in addition to membrane-associated domains
Homo sapiens
16020
-
microtubule
-
Homo sapiens
5874
-
additional information
the intracellular distribution pattern of HAS1 is distinct from other isoenzymes. In all cell types studied so far, a high proportion of HAS1 is accumulated intracellularly, with a faint signal detected on the plasma membrane and its protrusions. The recombinant GFP-HAS1 signal is mainly cytoplasmic, rather than on the plasma membrane, being distributed either diffusely or in cytoplasmic patches, and partially co-localizing with the Golgi apparatus. Transfected HAS1V-GFP constructs localize with cytoskeletal structures like microtubules
Homo sapiens
-
-
Metals/Ions
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Mg2+
the enzyme requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity
Homo sapiens
Mn2+
the enzyme requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity
Homo sapiens
Organism
Organism
UniProt
Commentary
Textmining
Homo sapiens
Q92839
gene HAS1
-
Source Tissue
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
breast cancer cell
-
Homo sapiens
-
fibroblast
-
Homo sapiens
-
MCF-7 cell
-
Homo sapiens
-
mesothelioma cell
-
Homo sapiens
-
additional information
both full length and splice variants of HAS1 are expressed in malignancies like bladder and prostate cancers, multiple myeloma, and malignant mesothelioma
Homo sapiens
-
myeloma cell
-
Homo sapiens
-
prostate cancer cell
-
Homo sapiens
-
synoviocyte
-
Homo sapiens
-
urinary bladder cancer cell
-
Homo sapiens
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
Substrate Product ID
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-[nascent hyaluronan]
-
736145
Homo sapiens
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-[nascent hyaluronan]
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-[nascent hyaluronan]
-
736145
Homo sapiens
UDP + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-[nascent hyaluronan]
-
-
-
?
Synonyms
Synonyms
Commentary
Organism
HAS1
-
Homo sapiens
hyaluronan synthase 1
-
Homo sapiens
Application (protein specific)
Application
Commentary
Organism
medicine
the role of HAS1 as a poor predictor in breast cancer, and is correlated with high relapse rate and short overall survival
Homo sapiens
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
gene HAS1, in addition to the full-length form, HAS1 has multiple transcript variants resulting from alternative splicing
Homo sapiens
Engineering (protein specific)
Protein Variants
Commentary
Organism
additional information
both COS-1 and MCF-7 cell lines have negligible endogenous hyaluronan production, and even overexpression of HAS1 enzymes does not cause prominent changes in it. Upon treatment with glucose or glucosamine, compounds that increase the amounts of hyaluronan substrates, the HAS1 enzyme is able to produce significant amounts of hyaluronan
Homo sapiens
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
-
additional information
availability of substrate UDP-GlcNAc does not considerably influence the Km of Has1 toward UDP-GlcUA, whereas levels of UDP-GlcUA have a significant effect of the Km toward UDP-GlcNAc
Homo sapiens
Localization (protein specific)
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
cytoplasm
-
Homo sapiens
5737
-
cytoskeleton
-
Homo sapiens
5856
-
endoplasmic reticulum
-
Homo sapiens
5783
-
Golgi apparatus
-
Homo sapiens
5794
-
membrane
are integral membrane proteins with transmembrane domains in addition to membrane-associated domains
Homo sapiens
16020
-
microtubule
-
Homo sapiens
5874
-
additional information
the intracellular distribution pattern of HAS1 is distinct from other isoenzymes. In all cell types studied so far, a high proportion of HAS1 is accumulated intracellularly, with a faint signal detected on the plasma membrane and its protrusions. The recombinant GFP-HAS1 signal is mainly cytoplasmic, rather than on the plasma membrane, being distributed either diffusely or in cytoplasmic patches, and partially co-localizing with the Golgi apparatus. Transfected HAS1V-GFP constructs localize with cytoskeletal structures like microtubules
Homo sapiens
-
-
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Mg2+
the enzyme requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity
Homo sapiens
Mn2+
the enzyme requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity
Homo sapiens
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
breast cancer cell
-
Homo sapiens
-
fibroblast
-
Homo sapiens
-
MCF-7 cell
-
Homo sapiens
-
mesothelioma cell
-
Homo sapiens
-
additional information
both full length and splice variants of HAS1 are expressed in malignancies like bladder and prostate cancers, multiple myeloma, and malignant mesothelioma
Homo sapiens
-
myeloma cell
-
Homo sapiens
-
prostate cancer cell
-
Homo sapiens
-
synoviocyte
-
Homo sapiens
-
urinary bladder cancer cell
-
Homo sapiens
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
ID
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-[nascent hyaluronan]
-
736145
Homo sapiens
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-[nascent hyaluronan]
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-[nascent hyaluronan]
-
736145
Homo sapiens
UDP + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-[nascent hyaluronan]
-
-
-
?
Expression
Organism
Commentary
Expression
Homo sapiens
the enzyme expression is decreased in transcriptional regulation by estradiol, 4-methylumbelliferone, and TGF-beta1
down
Homo sapiens
Has1 is upregulated in states associated with inflammation, like atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, and infectious lung disease. The enzyme expression is increased in transcriptional regulation by factors EGF, FGF2, FGF, forskolin, IGF, IL-1beta, PDGF, progesterone, prostaglandin D2, prostaglandin E2, and TGF-beta
up
General Information
General Information
Commentary
Organism
additional information
An important factor affecting activity of all HAS enzymes is the cytoplasmic availability of substrates, namely, UDP-GlcUA and UDP-GlcNAc. This role of substrates is particularly interesting in regulation of HAS1 as its activity of hyaluronan production in many cell models is low or absent unless stimulated
Homo sapiens
physiological function
hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1) is one of three isoenzymes responsible for cellular hyaluronan synthesis. The role of HAS1 in hyaluronan production seems to be insignificant compared to the two other isoenzymes, HAS2 and HAS3, which have higher enzymatic activity. Isozyme Has1 is upregulated in states associated with inflammation, like atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, and infectious lung disease. Both full length and splice variants of HAS1 are expressed in malignancies like bladder and prostate cancers, multiple myeloma, and malignant mesothelioma. The pericellular hyaluronan coat produced by HAS1 is usually thin without induction by inflammatory agents or glycemic stress and depends on CD44–HA interactions. These specific interactions regulate the organization of hyaluronan into a leukocyte recruiting matrix during inflammatory responses. Despite the apparently minor enzymatic activity of HAS1 under normal conditions, it may be an important factor under conditions associated with glycemic stress like metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and cancer. HAS1 expression is transcriptionally regulated by transforming growth factor-beta in synoviocytes and by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta in fibroblasts, while these factors may have similar or opposite effects on other HASs, depending on the cell type. Has1 is associated with breast tumor and with estrogen receptor negativity, HER2 positivity, high relapse rate, and short overall survival
Homo sapiens
General Information (protein specific)
General Information
Commentary
Organism
additional information
An important factor affecting activity of all HAS enzymes is the cytoplasmic availability of substrates, namely, UDP-GlcUA and UDP-GlcNAc. This role of substrates is particularly interesting in regulation of HAS1 as its activity of hyaluronan production in many cell models is low or absent unless stimulated
Homo sapiens
physiological function
hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1) is one of three isoenzymes responsible for cellular hyaluronan synthesis. The role of HAS1 in hyaluronan production seems to be insignificant compared to the two other isoenzymes, HAS2 and HAS3, which have higher enzymatic activity. Isozyme Has1 is upregulated in states associated with inflammation, like atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, and infectious lung disease. Both full length and splice variants of HAS1 are expressed in malignancies like bladder and prostate cancers, multiple myeloma, and malignant mesothelioma. The pericellular hyaluronan coat produced by HAS1 is usually thin without induction by inflammatory agents or glycemic stress and depends on CD44–HA interactions. These specific interactions regulate the organization of hyaluronan into a leukocyte recruiting matrix during inflammatory responses. Despite the apparently minor enzymatic activity of HAS1 under normal conditions, it may be an important factor under conditions associated with glycemic stress like metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and cancer. HAS1 expression is transcriptionally regulated by transforming growth factor-beta in synoviocytes and by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta in fibroblasts, while these factors may have similar or opposite effects on other HASs, depending on the cell type. Has1 is associated with breast tumor and with estrogen receptor negativity, HER2 positivity, high relapse rate, and short overall survival
Homo sapiens
Expression (protein specific)
Organism
Commentary
Expression
Homo sapiens
the enzyme expression is decreased in transcriptional regulation by estradiol, 4-methylumbelliferone, and TGF-beta1
down
Homo sapiens
Has1 is upregulated in states associated with inflammation, like atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, and infectious lung disease. The enzyme expression is increased in transcriptional regulation by factors EGF, FGF2, FGF, forskolin, IGF, IL-1beta, PDGF, progesterone, prostaglandin D2, prostaglandin E2, and TGF-beta
up
Other publictions for EC 2.4.1.212
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Synonyms
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
756468
Eisele
-
In vitro one-pot enzymatic sy ...
Pasteurella multocida
ChemCatChem
10
2969-2981
2018
-
1
1
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1
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2
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2
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735574
Pure
Role for hyaluronan synthase 3 ...
Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Mus musculus C57/BL6J
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
36
224-225
2016
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
62
-
-
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5
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
6
-
-
-
736725
Li
Hyaluronan synthase 2 regulate ...
Mus musculus
Matrix Biol.
55
35-48
2016
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
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-
4
-
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2
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1
1
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1
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-
-
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-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
2
1
-
-
737218
Chavoshinejad
Localisation and endocrine con ...
Ovis aries
Reprod. Fertil. Dev.
28
765-775
2016
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
10
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
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3
-
-
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10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
3
-
-
736067
Takabe
Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) o ...
Homo sapiens
Exp. Cell Res.
337
1-15
2015
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
3
-
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-
-
-
1
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2
-
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1
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1
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2
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-
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-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
2
1
-
-
736145
Siiskonen
Hyaluronan synthase 1: a myste ...
Homo sapiens
Front. Immunol.
6
43
2015
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
1
7
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
1
-
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1
7
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
2
2
-
-
737217
Garoby-Salom
Hyaluronan synthase-2 upregula ...
Mus musculus, Mus musculus 129/Sv
Redox Biol.
4
118-126
2015
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
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-
-
1
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2
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1
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
736064
Siiskonen
Hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1) p ...
Homo sapiens
Exp. Cell Res.
320
153-163
2014
-
-
1
-
1
-
2
-
4
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
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-
6
-
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2
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1
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1
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4
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6
-
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-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
-
-
736219
Toerroenen
Tissue distribution and subcel ...
Mus musculus
Histochem. Cell Biol.
141
17-31
2014
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
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-
4
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27
-
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3
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3
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9
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27
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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6
6
-
-
-
736643
Kooy
-
Kinetic and structural analysi ...
Pasteurella multocida
J. Mol. Catal. B
102
138-145
2014
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
5
-
1
-
3
-
1
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1
2
-
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8
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1
1
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4
1
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1
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1
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5
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1
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3
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1
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8
-
1
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-
4
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
736724
Vigetti
Metabolic control of hyalurona ...
Mammalia, Streptococcus sp., Pasteurella multocida
Matrix Biol.
35
8-13
2014
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
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6
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3
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2
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8
3
2
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6
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2
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8
3
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-
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4
4
-
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721994
Caskey
Lentiviral-mediated over-expre ...
Mus musculus, Mus musculus C57BL/6
Cell Tissue Res.
351
117-125
2013
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
142
-
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1
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2
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1
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1
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-
-
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-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
722816
Rilla
Hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1) r ...
Homo sapiens
J. Biol. Chem.
288
5973-5983
2013
-
-
3
-
3
-
2
-
3
3
-
9
-
8
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6
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12
-
4
3
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3
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3
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3
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6
-
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3
3
-
9
-
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-
6
-
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12
-
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
4
4
-
-
-
721931
Medina
Hyaluronan synthase mediates d ...
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis
BMC Biochem.
13
2-2
2012
-
-
-
-
3
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
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-
-
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1
1
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3
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2
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Chondroitin sulfate increases ...
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bFGF induces changes in hyalur ...
Homo sapiens
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Expression of hyaluronan synth ...
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Expression of hyaluronan synth ...
Homo sapiens
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Effect of cytokines on hyaluro ...
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Kultti
4-Methylumbelliferone inhibits ...
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Regulation of the hyaluronan s ...
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Aberrant splice variants of HA ...
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Inhibition of hyaluronan synth ...
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Allison
Endogenous overexpression of h ...
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702854
Adamia
Inherited and acquired variati ...
Homo sapiens
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Krupa
Quantitative continuous assay ...
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Pummill
The functional molecular mass ...
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673417
Jong
Identification and characteriz ...
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Eukaryot. Cell
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Tracy
Acceptor specificity of the Pa ...
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Kyossev
An enzyme capture assay for an ...
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Li
Growth factor regulation of hy ...
Homo sapiens, Mus musculus
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Campo
Differential effect of growth ...
Homo sapiens
Biochemistry
72
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Stuhlmeier
Prostaglandin E2: A potent act ...
Homo sapiens
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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2007
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1
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2
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1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
691191
Allison
The effect of endogenous overe ...
Rattus norvegicus
Biomaterials
28
5509-5517
2007
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
1
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1
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2
-
1
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1
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-
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1
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2
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1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
691451
Mao
Recombinant synthesis of hyalu ...
Pasteurella multocida
Biotechnol. Prog.
23
1038-1042
2007
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
15
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
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2
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
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-
-
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2
-
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1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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691893
Bartolo
The distribution of renal hyal ...
Notomys alexis
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A
148
853-860
2007
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
3
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6
-
11
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
6
-
9
-
-
-
-
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-
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3
-
-
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3
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6
-
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5
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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692221
Nishitsuka
Hyaluronan production regulati ...
Sus scrofa
Exp. Eye Res.
85
539-545
2007
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
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2
-
2
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2
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1
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2
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2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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692996
Bourguignon
Heregulin-mediated ErbB2-ERK s ...
Homo sapiens
J. Biol. Chem.
282
19426-19441
2007
3
3
1
-
-
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3
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3
6
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6
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3
-
-
-
9
48
-
6
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
3
6
-
-
3
-
-
9
48
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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692998
Bharadwaj
Inducible hyaluronan productio ...
Homo sapiens
J. Biol. Chem.
282
20561-20572
2007
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1
1
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-
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2
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3
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2
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2
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2
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1
1
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2
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-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
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693001
Meran
Involvement of hyaluronan in r ...
Homo sapiens
J. Biol. Chem.
282
25687-25697
2007
2
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1
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-
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1
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2
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2
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1
-
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2
-
2
-
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2
-
1
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-
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1
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2
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-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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693368
Carulli
Upregulation of aggrecan, link ...
Rattus norvegicus
J. Comp. Neurol.
501
83-94
2007
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-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
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2
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6
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-
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8
-
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2
-
4
-
-
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-
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-
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1
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2
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8
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
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693592
Sim
Black rice (Oryza sativa L. va ...
Homo sapiens
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
17
271-279
2007
1
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-
-
-
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-
1
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2
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4
-
-
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-
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3
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2
-
2
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1
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1
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2
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3
-
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2
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
695183
Fischer
Regulation of hyaluronan synth ...
Mammalia
Thromb. Haemost.
98
287-295
2007
8
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
1
-
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
671862
Goentzel
Recombinant human hyaluronan s ...
Homo sapiens
Biochem. J.
396
347-354
2006
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1
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-
-
-
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1
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3
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1
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-
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2
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1
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1
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1
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674085
Nikitovic
Transforming growth factor-bet ...
Homo sapiens
IUBMB Life
58
47-53
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
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3
-
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-
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-
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-
-
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-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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674537
Kumari
Mutation of two intramembrane ...
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis
J. Biol. Chem.
281
11755-11760
2006
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1
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6
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1
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6
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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674706
Weigel
Phospholipid dependence and li ...
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis
J. Biol. Chem.
281
36542-36551
2006
3
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1
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-
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-
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4
-
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1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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3
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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675030
Wilkinson
Overexpression of hyaluronan s ...
Mus musculus
J. Cell. Physiol.
206
378-385
2006
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1
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4
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-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
675765
Adams
Expression of hyaluronan synth ...
Homo sapiens
Matrix Biol.
25
40-46
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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657784
Uchiyama
Regulation of hyaluronan synth ...
Mus musculus
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
327
927-932
2005
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
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7
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
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8
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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658855
Kumari
Identification of a membrane-l ...
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis
Glycobiology
15
529-539
2005
-
-
1
-
15
-
2
-
1
-
-
1
-
6
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
2
1
2
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
15
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
659455
Tlapak-Simmons
Hyaluronan biosynthesis by cla ...
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus pyogenes
J. Biol. Chem.
280
13012-13018
2005
-
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1
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-
-
-
-
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2
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2
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13
-
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1
2
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-
-
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6
-
4
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
2
-
-
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2
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-
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-
-
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659492
Rilla
Plasma membrane residence of h ...
Mus musculus
J. Biol. Chem.
280
31890-31897
2005
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1
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2
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1
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5
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2
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
672775
Adamia
Intronic splicing of hyalurona ...
Homo sapiens
Blood
105
4836-4844
2005
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
673244
Tien
Three vertebrate hyaluronan sy ...
Mus musculus
Dev. Dyn.
233
130-141
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
673466
Nishida
Antisense inhibition of hyalur ...
Homo sapiens
Exp. Cell Res.
307
194-203
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
658093
Tlapak-Simmons
Characterization of the purifi ...
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis
Biochemistry
43
9234-9242
2004
2
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1
-
-
1
14
1
1
3
1
1
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
1
1
-
1
1
1
1
2
-
4
-
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
14
4
1
1
3
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
3
1
1
-
1
1
1
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
659334
Itano
Selective expression and funct ...
Rattus norvegicus
J. Biol. Chem.
279
18679-18687
2004
-
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2
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2
-
-
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5
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6
-
-
-
-
-
9
3
-
8
-
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
9
3
-
8
-
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
659346
Hoshi
An engineered hyaluronan synth ...
Homo sapiens
J. Biol. Chem.
279
2341-2349
2004
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2
1
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-
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-
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1
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7
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-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
658841
Jing
Analysis of the two active sit ...
Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella multocida type A
Glycobiology
13
661-671
2003
-
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1
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19
-
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1
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4
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2
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5
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1
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6
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2
1
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
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19
-
-
-
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1
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4
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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6
-
1
-
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-
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-
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-
395260
Sayo
Hyaluronan synthase 3 regulate ...
Homo sapiens
J. Invest. Dermatol.
118
43-48
2002
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-
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2
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1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
658945
Itano
Mammalian hyaluronan synthases ...
Homo sapiens, Mus musculus
IUBMB Life
54
195-199
2002
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2
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1
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-
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2
-
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2
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2
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2
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-
-
-
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4
2
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
4
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
658946
Weigel
Functional characteristics and ...
Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus pyogenes
IUBMB Life
54
201-211
2002
1
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2
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-
-
-
2
2
1
2
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9
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
7
3
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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