BRENDA - Enzyme Database show
show all sequences of 2.3.1.191

LPS remodeling is an evolved survival strategy for bacteria

Li, Y.; Powell, D.A.; Shaffer, S.A.; Rasko, D.A.; Pelletier, M.R.; Leszyk, J.D.; Scott, A.J.; Masoudi, A.; Goodlett, D.R.; Wang, X.; Raetz, C.R.; Ernst, R.K.; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 8716-8721 (2012)

Data extracted from this reference:

Cloned(Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
genes lpxD1 and lpxD2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phyylogenetic analysis, the lpxD1gene lies within an essential four-gene operon, lpxD1/fabZ/lpxA/lpxB, while the second gene lpxD2 as a single gene is predicted to be regulated by its own promoter
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
Engineering
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
additional information
construction of lpxD1-null and lpxD2-null mutant strains, that show altered antibiotic susceptibility patterns, membrane permeability, but no innate immune responses
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
-
UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
ir
(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida U112
-
UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
ir
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
-
genes lpxD1 and lpxD2
-
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida U112
-
genes lpxD1 and lpxD2
-
Source Tissue
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
cell culture
growth temperatures of 18°C to 37°C
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine
-
720944
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
-
ir
(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine
the LpxD1 enzyme adds a 3-OH C18 acyl group at 37 °C (host), whereas the LpxD2 enzyme adds a 3-OH C16 acyl group at 18 °C (environment)
720944
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
-
ir
(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine
-
720944
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida U112
UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
-
ir
(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine
the LpxD1 enzyme adds a 3-OH C18 acyl group at 37 °C (host), whereas the LpxD2 enzyme adds a 3-OH C16 acyl group at 18 °C (environment)
720944
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida U112
UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
-
ir
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
genes lpxD1 and lpxD2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phyylogenetic analysis, the lpxD1gene lies within an essential four-gene operon, lpxD1/fabZ/lpxA/lpxB, while the second gene lpxD2 as a single gene is predicted to be regulated by its own promoter
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
Engineering (protein specific)
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
additional information
construction of lpxD1-null and lpxD2-null mutant strains, that show altered antibiotic susceptibility patterns, membrane permeability, but no innate immune responses
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
-
UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
ir
(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida U112
-
UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
ir
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
cell culture
growth temperatures of 18°C to 37°C
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine
-
720944
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
-
ir
(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine
the LpxD1 enzyme adds a 3-OH C18 acyl group at 37 °C (host), whereas the LpxD2 enzyme adds a 3-OH C16 acyl group at 18 °C (environment)
720944
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
-
ir
(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine
-
720944
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida U112
UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
-
ir
(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine
the LpxD1 enzyme adds a 3-OH C18 acyl group at 37 °C (host), whereas the LpxD2 enzyme adds a 3-OH C16 acyl group at 18 °C (environment)
720944
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida U112
UDP-2,3-bis[O-(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
-
ir
General Information
General Information
Commentary
Organism
malfunction
the lpxD1-null mutant is attenuated in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently exhibits protection against a lethal wild-type challenge. The lpxD1-null and lpxD2-null mutant strains show altered antibiotic susceptibility patterns, membrane permeability, but no innate immune responses. The DELTAlpxD1 mutant is more susceptible to antibiotics with diverse mechanisms of action such as chloramphenicol, carbenicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, rifampin, and vancomycin, whereas the DELTAlpxD2 mutant is only susceptible to carbenicillin and erythromycin
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
metabolism
Francisella modifies its lipid A structure in response to temperature adaptation by altering the length of the amidelinked acyl chains: 3-OH-C16 at environmental temperature and 3-OH-C18 at mammalian temperature
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
physiological function
functional LpxD is essential for bacterial viability, transcriptional control of the lpxD genes, encoding the lipid A-modifying N-acyltransferase enzymes LpxD1/2,and posttranslational control of the LpxD1 and LpxD2 enzymatic activities are involved in the mechanism for temperature-regulated membrane remodeling by LPS/lipid A-level modifications resulting in alterations of membrane fluidity, as well as integrity, that may represent a general paradigm for bacterial membrane adaptation and virulence-state adaptation
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
General Information (protein specific)
General Information
Commentary
Organism
malfunction
the lpxD1-null mutant is attenuated in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently exhibits protection against a lethal wild-type challenge. The lpxD1-null and lpxD2-null mutant strains show altered antibiotic susceptibility patterns, membrane permeability, but no innate immune responses. The DELTAlpxD1 mutant is more susceptible to antibiotics with diverse mechanisms of action such as chloramphenicol, carbenicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, rifampin, and vancomycin, whereas the DELTAlpxD2 mutant is only susceptible to carbenicillin and erythromycin
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
metabolism
Francisella modifies its lipid A structure in response to temperature adaptation by altering the length of the amidelinked acyl chains: 3-OH-C16 at environmental temperature and 3-OH-C18 at mammalian temperature
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
physiological function
functional LpxD is essential for bacterial viability, transcriptional control of the lpxD genes, encoding the lipid A-modifying N-acyltransferase enzymes LpxD1/2,and posttranslational control of the LpxD1 and LpxD2 enzymatic activities are involved in the mechanism for temperature-regulated membrane remodeling by LPS/lipid A-level modifications resulting in alterations of membrane fluidity, as well as integrity, that may represent a general paradigm for bacterial membrane adaptation and virulence-state adaptation
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida
Other publictions for EC 2.3.1.191
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
735568
Alshalchi
Expression of the lipopolysacc ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCBPP-PA14
Arch. Microbiol.
197
135-145
2015
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1
1
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736235
Eshghi
Leptospira interrogans lpxD ho ...
Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira interrogans L495
Infect. Immun.
83
4314-4321
2015
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1
1
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736449
Jenkins
Structural basis for the recog ...
Escherichia coli
J. Biol. Chem.
289
15527-15535
2014
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736880
Masoudi
Chasing acyl carrier protein t ...
Escherichia coli
Nature
505
422-426
2014
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1
1
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737072
Emiola
A complete pathway model for l ...
Escherichia coli
PLoS ONE
10
e0121216
2014
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1
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1
1
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735384
Badger
Structure determination of Lpx ...
Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter baumannii SDF
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F
69
6-9
2013
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1
1
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736185
Yeom
Pleiotropic effects of acyltra ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Genes Cells
18
682-693
2013
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718571
Jenkins
A continuous fluorescent enzym ...
Escherichia coli
Anal. Biochem.
425
21-27
2012
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1
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720944
Li
LPS remodeling is an evolved s ...
Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida, Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida U112
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
109
8716-8721
2012
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3
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718513
Badger
The structure of LpxD from Pse ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F
67
749-752
2011
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720913
Li
Pathway for lipid A biosynthes ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
108
11387-11392
2011
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696356
Bartling
Crystal structure and acyl cha ...
Escherichia coli
Biochemistry
48
8672-8683
2009
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696264
Bartling
Steady-state kinetics and mech ...
Escherichia coli
Biochemistry
47
5290-5302
2008
1
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1
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10
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8
21
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3
1
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1
1
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23
1
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7
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1
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1
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10
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8
7
21
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3
1
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1
1
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23
1
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11
11
698587
Bainbridge
Acyl chain specificity of the ...
Escherichia coli, Porphyromonas gingivalis
J. Bacteriol.
190
4549-4558
2008
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2
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694027
Albers
Expression of Legionella pneum ...
Legionella pneumophila
Microbiology
153
3817-3829
2007
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700935
Buetow
Structure and reactivity of Lp ...
Chlamydia trachomatis
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
104
4321-4326
2007
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1
1
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1
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