BRENDA - Enzyme Database show
show all sequences of 2.1.1.156

Extreme halophiles synthesize betaine from glycine by methylation

Nyyssola, A.; Kerovuo, J.; Kaukinen, P.; von Weymarn, N.; Reinikainen, T.; J. Biol. Chem. 275, 22196-22201 (2000)

Data extracted from this reference:

Cloned(Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
DNA and amino acid sequence determination, functional coexpression in Escherichia coli with sarcosine dimethylglycine methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.157, conferring betaine accumulation and increased salt tolerance to the Escherichia coli cells
Halorhodospira halochloris
DNA and amino acid sequence determination, the single gene encodes the glycine sarcosine methyltransferase as well as the sarcosine dimethylglycine methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.157, the latter being probably a proteolytic processing product of the first, poor expression in Escherichia coli of the full length and the truncated enzyme
Actinopolyspora halophila
General Stability
General Stability
Organism
enzyme is instable during purification, activity is lost within 30 min
Actinopolyspora halophila
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
38000
-
gel filtration
Halorhodospira halochloris
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
additional information
Halorhodospira halochloris
the enzyme catalyzes the first 2 steps of betaine synthesis from glycine in a 3-step process
?
-
-
-
additional information
Actinopolyspora halophila
the enzyme catalyzes the first 2 steps of betaine synthesis from glycine in a 3-step process
?
-
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
Halorhodospira halochloris
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
Actinopolyspora halophila
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
Actinopolyspora halophila
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
?
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Actinopolyspora halophila
Q9KJ20
-
-
Halorhodospira halochloris
-
-
-
Halorhodospira halochloris
Q9KJ22
i.e. Halorhodospira halochloris, ATCC 35916
-
Purification (Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography and ultrafiltration
Halorhodospira halochloris
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Minimum [µmol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [µmol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
0.023
-
activity with glycine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine in crude cell extracts
Actinopolyspora halophila
0.058
-
activity with glycine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine in crude cell extracts
Halorhodospira halochloris
0.19
-
activity with sarcosine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine, purified enzyme
Halorhodospira halochloris
0.23
-
activity with sarcosine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine in crude cell extracts
Halorhodospira halochloris
0.34
-
activity with sarcosine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine in crude cell extracts
Actinopolyspora halophila
0.52
-
activity with glycine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine, purified enzyme
Halorhodospira halochloris
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
overall reaction
659145
Halorhodospira halochloris
2 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
-
?
additional information
the enzyme catalyzes the first 2 steps of betaine synthesis from glycine in a 3-step process
659145
Halorhodospira halochloris
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the enzyme catalyzes the first 2 steps of betaine synthesis from glycine in a 3-step process
659145
Actinopolyspora halophila
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the enzyme has overlapping activities with the enzyme catalyzing the following reaction steps
659145
Halorhodospira halochloris
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the enzyme has overlapping activities with the enzyme catalyzing the following reaction steps
659145
Actinopolyspora halophila
?
-
-
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
-
659145
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
-
659145
Actinopolyspora halophila
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
-
659145
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
i.e. 2-methylglycine
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
-
659145
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
-
659145
Actinopolyspora halophila
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
i.e. 2-methylglycine
659145
Actinopolyspora halophila
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
-
?
Subunits
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
monomer
1 * 38000, SDS-PAGE
Halorhodospira halochloris
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [°C]
Commentary
Organism
37
-
assay at
Actinopolyspora halophila
37
-
assay at
Halorhodospira halochloris
pH Optimum
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
7.5
-
assay at
Actinopolyspora halophila
7.5
-
assay at
Halorhodospira halochloris
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
DNA and amino acid sequence determination, the single gene encodes the glycine sarcosine methyltransferase as well as the sarcosine dimethylglycine methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.157, the latter being probably a proteolytic processing product of the first, poor expression in Escherichia coli of the full length and the truncated enzyme
Actinopolyspora halophila
DNA and amino acid sequence determination, functional coexpression in Escherichia coli with sarcosine dimethylglycine methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.157, conferring betaine accumulation and increased salt tolerance to the Escherichia coli cells
Halorhodospira halochloris
General Stability (protein specific)
General Stability
Organism
enzyme is instable during purification, activity is lost within 30 min
Actinopolyspora halophila
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
38000
-
gel filtration
Halorhodospira halochloris
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
additional information
Halorhodospira halochloris
the enzyme catalyzes the first 2 steps of betaine synthesis from glycine in a 3-step process
?
-
-
-
additional information
Actinopolyspora halophila
the enzyme catalyzes the first 2 steps of betaine synthesis from glycine in a 3-step process
?
-
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
Halorhodospira halochloris
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
Actinopolyspora halophila
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
Actinopolyspora halophila
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
?
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography and ultrafiltration
Halorhodospira halochloris
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Specific Activity Minimum [µmol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [µmol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
0.023
-
activity with glycine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine in crude cell extracts
Actinopolyspora halophila
0.058
-
activity with glycine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine in crude cell extracts
Halorhodospira halochloris
0.19
-
activity with sarcosine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine, purified enzyme
Halorhodospira halochloris
0.23
-
activity with sarcosine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine in crude cell extracts
Halorhodospira halochloris
0.34
-
activity with sarcosine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine in crude cell extracts
Actinopolyspora halophila
0.52
-
activity with glycine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine, purified enzyme
Halorhodospira halochloris
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
overall reaction
659145
Halorhodospira halochloris
2 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
-
?
additional information
the enzyme catalyzes the first 2 steps of betaine synthesis from glycine in a 3-step process
659145
Halorhodospira halochloris
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the enzyme catalyzes the first 2 steps of betaine synthesis from glycine in a 3-step process
659145
Actinopolyspora halophila
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the enzyme has overlapping activities with the enzyme catalyzing the following reaction steps
659145
Halorhodospira halochloris
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the enzyme has overlapping activities with the enzyme catalyzing the following reaction steps
659145
Actinopolyspora halophila
?
-
-
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
-
659145
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
-
659145
Actinopolyspora halophila
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
-
659145
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
i.e. 2-methylglycine
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
-
659145
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
-
659145
Actinopolyspora halophila
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
i.e. 2-methylglycine
659145
Actinopolyspora halophila
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
-
?
Subunits (protein specific)
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
monomer
1 * 38000, SDS-PAGE
Halorhodospira halochloris
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [°C]
Commentary
Organism
37
-
assay at
Actinopolyspora halophila
37
-
assay at
Halorhodospira halochloris
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
7.5
-
assay at
Actinopolyspora halophila
7.5
-
assay at
Halorhodospira halochloris
Other publictions for EC 2.1.1.156
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
733736
Niu
-
Co-expression of ApGSMT and Ap ...
Aphanothece halophytica
Environ. Exp. Bot.
104
16-25
2014
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
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2
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1
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2
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2
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
734932
Lai
Transgenic Arabidopsis express ...
Methanohalophilus portucalensis, Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF-1
Plant Mol. Biol.
85
429-441
2014
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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4
-
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1
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4
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4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
734671
He
Co-expression of genes ApGSMT2 ...
Aphanothece halophytica
Mol. Breed.
31
559-573
2013
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
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2
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1
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2
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2
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
-
-
720836
Lai
Characterization and regulatio ...
Methanohalophilus portucalensis, Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1
PLoS ONE
6
e25090
2011
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
4
-
3
2
6
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
8
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
2
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
2
2
-
4
-
3
2
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
8
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
2
2
1
-
-
719715
Kimura
Glycine betaine biosynthesized ...
Myxococcus xanthus
J. Bacteriol.
192
1467-1470
2010
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
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1
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1
1
-
1
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-
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1
2
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-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
671647
Lu
Identification of glycine beta ...
Synechococcus sp. WH 8102
Arch. Microbiol.
186
495-506
2006
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
3
2
-
6
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
5
1
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
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-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
3
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
5
1
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
659286
Waditee
Isolation and functional chara ...
Aphanothece halophytica
J. Biol. Chem.
278
4932-4942
2003
1
-
1
-
2
-
12
9
-
-
3
5
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
9
2
1
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
4
-
-
18
-
12
-
-
5
5
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
9
3
1
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
657578
Nyyssola
Characterization of glycine sa ...
Halorhodospira halochloris
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
67
2044-2050
2001
1
3
1
-
-
-
5
4
-
1
3
3
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
6
1
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
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-
1
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
4
-
1
3
3
-
-
-
1
-
-
3
-
6
1
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
659145
Nyyssola
Extreme halophiles synthesize ...
Actinopolyspora halophila, Halorhodospira halochloris
J. Biol. Chem.
275
22196-22201
2000
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
6
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
6
-
13
1
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
6
-
13
1
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-