BRENDA - Enzyme Database show
show all sequences of 2.1.1.156

Characterization of glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase and sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase

Nyyssola, A.; Reinikainen, T.; Leisola, M.; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 2044-2050 (2001)

Data extracted from this reference:

Activating Compound
Activating Compound
Commentary
Organism
Structure
betaine
recombinant enzyme: 20% activation at 0.5 M with sarcosine, no activation with glycine
Halorhodospira halochloris
Application
Application
Commentary
Organism
agriculture
enzyme can be used in betaine production for improvement of stress tolerance of commercially important microbes in agriculture and industry, and for nutritial improvement of transgenic crop plants, that do not produce betaine naturally
Halorhodospira halochloris
biotechnology
enzyme can be used in betaine production for improvement of stress tolerance of commercially important microbes in agriculture and industry, and for nutritial improvement of transgenic crop plants, that do not produce betaine naturally
Halorhodospira halochloris
nutrition
enzyme can be used in betaine production for improvement of stress tolerance of commercially important microbes in agriculture and industry, and for nutritial improvement of transgenic crop plants, that do not produce betaine naturally
Halorhodospira halochloris
Cloned(Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
functional overexpression in Escherichia coli strain XL-1 Blue conferring betaine accumulation and increased salt tolerance when coexpressed with the sarcosine dimethylglycine methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.157
Halorhodospira halochloris
Inhibitors
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
4-chloromercuribenzoate
recombinant enzyme: over 95% inhibition at 1.33 mM, completely reversible by 5.3 mM DTT
Halorhodospira halochloris
betaine
recombinant enzyme: poor inhibition, 60% inhibition at 2 M with glycine, and 70% inhibition at 2 M with sarcosine, synergistic with salts KCl and NaCl, overview
Halorhodospira halochloris
KCl/NaCl
recombinant enzyme: synergistic with betaine, 80% inhibition at 0.33 M KCl and 0.66M NaCl with glycine, and 66% inhibition at 0.33 M KCl and 0.66 M NaCl with sarcosine, overview
Halorhodospira halochloris
N,N-dimethylglycine
recombinant enzyme: poor competitive product inhibition, 50% inhibition at 38 mM with glycine, and at 49 mM with sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
recombinant enzyme: competitive product inhibition, 50% inhibition at 0.5 mM with glycine, and at 0.4 mM with sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
KM Value [mM]
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.28
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
recombinant enzyme, pH 7.4, 37°C, with sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
0.42
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
recombinant enzyme, pH 7.4, 37°C, with glycine
Halorhodospira halochloris
2.3
-
sarcosine
recombinant enzyme, pH 7.4, 37°C, with S-adenosyl-L-methionine
Halorhodospira halochloris
18
-
glycine
recombinant enzyme, pH 7.4, 37°C, with S-adenosyl-L-methionine
Halorhodospira halochloris
Metals/Ions
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
no requirement for Ca2+, Mg2+, EDTA, Mn2+, Co2+, or Zn2+
Halorhodospira halochloris
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
31000
-
1 * 42000, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE, 1 * 31000, about, amino acid sequence calculation
Halorhodospira halochloris
40000
-
gel filtration
Halorhodospira halochloris
42000
-
1 * 42000, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE, 1 * 31000, about, amino acid sequence calculation
Halorhodospira halochloris
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
additional information
Halorhodospira halochloris
the enzyme catalyzes the first 2 steps of glycine betaine synthesis from glycine in a 3-step process, betaine is required for balancing osmotic pressure under high salt living conditions
?
-
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
Halorhodospira halochloris
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
i.e. 2-methylglycine
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
?
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Halorhodospira halochloris
-
i.e. Halorhodospira halochloris
-
Purification (Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli by ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydrophobic and anion exchange chromatography, and ultrafiltration to homogeneity
Halorhodospira halochloris
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Minimum [µmol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [µmol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
additional information
-
-
Halorhodospira halochloris
0.075
-
purified recombinant enzyme, substrate sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
0.16
-
purified recombinant enzyme, substrate glycine
Halorhodospira halochloris
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
additional information
the enzyme catalyzes the first 2 steps of glycine betaine synthesis from glycine in a 3-step process, betaine is required for balancing osmotic pressure under high salt living conditions
657578
Halorhodospira halochloris
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the enzyme shows strict specificity for glycine and sarcosine as substrates, no activity with ethanolamine, monomethylethanolamine, nor several L-amino acid, overview
657578
Halorhodospira halochloris
?
-
-
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
-
657578
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
i.e. 2-methylglycine
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
the recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli is 3.3fold less active than the wild-type enzyme
657578
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
i.e. 2-methylglycine
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
-
657578
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
the recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli is 2.5fold less active than the wild-type enzyme
657578
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
-
?
Subunits
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
monomer
1 * 42000, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE, 1 * 31000, about, amino acid sequence calculation
Halorhodospira halochloris
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [°C]
Commentary
Organism
37
-
assay at
Halorhodospira halochloris
pH Optimum
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
7.4
-
recombinant enzyme, with substrate glycine
Halorhodospira halochloris
7.9
-
recombinant enzyme, with substrate sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Activating Compound
Commentary
Organism
Structure
betaine
recombinant enzyme: 20% activation at 0.5 M with sarcosine, no activation with glycine
Halorhodospira halochloris
Application (protein specific)
Application
Commentary
Organism
agriculture
enzyme can be used in betaine production for improvement of stress tolerance of commercially important microbes in agriculture and industry, and for nutritial improvement of transgenic crop plants, that do not produce betaine naturally
Halorhodospira halochloris
biotechnology
enzyme can be used in betaine production for improvement of stress tolerance of commercially important microbes in agriculture and industry, and for nutritial improvement of transgenic crop plants, that do not produce betaine naturally
Halorhodospira halochloris
nutrition
enzyme can be used in betaine production for improvement of stress tolerance of commercially important microbes in agriculture and industry, and for nutritial improvement of transgenic crop plants, that do not produce betaine naturally
Halorhodospira halochloris
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
functional overexpression in Escherichia coli strain XL-1 Blue conferring betaine accumulation and increased salt tolerance when coexpressed with the sarcosine dimethylglycine methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.157
Halorhodospira halochloris
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
4-chloromercuribenzoate
recombinant enzyme: over 95% inhibition at 1.33 mM, completely reversible by 5.3 mM DTT
Halorhodospira halochloris
betaine
recombinant enzyme: poor inhibition, 60% inhibition at 2 M with glycine, and 70% inhibition at 2 M with sarcosine, synergistic with salts KCl and NaCl, overview
Halorhodospira halochloris
KCl/NaCl
recombinant enzyme: synergistic with betaine, 80% inhibition at 0.33 M KCl and 0.66M NaCl with glycine, and 66% inhibition at 0.33 M KCl and 0.66 M NaCl with sarcosine, overview
Halorhodospira halochloris
N,N-dimethylglycine
recombinant enzyme: poor competitive product inhibition, 50% inhibition at 38 mM with glycine, and at 49 mM with sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
recombinant enzyme: competitive product inhibition, 50% inhibition at 0.5 mM with glycine, and at 0.4 mM with sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.28
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
recombinant enzyme, pH 7.4, 37°C, with sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
0.42
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
recombinant enzyme, pH 7.4, 37°C, with glycine
Halorhodospira halochloris
2.3
-
sarcosine
recombinant enzyme, pH 7.4, 37°C, with S-adenosyl-L-methionine
Halorhodospira halochloris
18
-
glycine
recombinant enzyme, pH 7.4, 37°C, with S-adenosyl-L-methionine
Halorhodospira halochloris
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
no requirement for Ca2+, Mg2+, EDTA, Mn2+, Co2+, or Zn2+
Halorhodospira halochloris
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
31000
-
1 * 42000, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE, 1 * 31000, about, amino acid sequence calculation
Halorhodospira halochloris
40000
-
gel filtration
Halorhodospira halochloris
42000
-
1 * 42000, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE, 1 * 31000, about, amino acid sequence calculation
Halorhodospira halochloris
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
additional information
Halorhodospira halochloris
the enzyme catalyzes the first 2 steps of glycine betaine synthesis from glycine in a 3-step process, betaine is required for balancing osmotic pressure under high salt living conditions
?
-
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
Halorhodospira halochloris
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
i.e. 2-methylglycine
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
?
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli by ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydrophobic and anion exchange chromatography, and ultrafiltration to homogeneity
Halorhodospira halochloris
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Specific Activity Minimum [µmol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [µmol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
additional information
-
-
Halorhodospira halochloris
0.075
-
purified recombinant enzyme, substrate sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
0.16
-
purified recombinant enzyme, substrate glycine
Halorhodospira halochloris
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
additional information
the enzyme catalyzes the first 2 steps of glycine betaine synthesis from glycine in a 3-step process, betaine is required for balancing osmotic pressure under high salt living conditions
657578
Halorhodospira halochloris
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the enzyme shows strict specificity for glycine and sarcosine as substrates, no activity with ethanolamine, monomethylethanolamine, nor several L-amino acid, overview
657578
Halorhodospira halochloris
?
-
-
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
-
657578
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
i.e. 2-methylglycine
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine
the recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli is 3.3fold less active than the wild-type enzyme
657578
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine
i.e. 2-methylglycine
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
-
657578
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine
the recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli is 2.5fold less active than the wild-type enzyme
657578
Halorhodospira halochloris
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
-
?
Subunits (protein specific)
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
monomer
1 * 42000, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE, 1 * 31000, about, amino acid sequence calculation
Halorhodospira halochloris
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [°C]
Commentary
Organism
37
-
assay at
Halorhodospira halochloris
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
7.4
-
recombinant enzyme, with substrate glycine
Halorhodospira halochloris
7.9
-
recombinant enzyme, with substrate sarcosine
Halorhodospira halochloris
Other publictions for EC 2.1.1.156
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
733736
Niu
-
Co-expression of ApGSMT and Ap ...
Aphanothece halophytica
Environ. Exp. Bot.
104
16-25
2014
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
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2
-
1
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2
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1
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2
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2
-
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-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
1
1
-
-
-
734932
Lai
Transgenic Arabidopsis express ...
Methanohalophilus portucalensis, Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF-1
Plant Mol. Biol.
85
429-441
2014
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
5
-
-
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4
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1
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4
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4
-
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-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
734671
He
-
Co-expression of genes ApGSMT2 ...
Aphanothece halophytica
Mol. Breed.
31
559-573
2013
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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2
-
1
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2
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1
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2
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-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
-
-
720836
Lai
Characterization and regulatio ...
Methanohalophilus portucalensis, Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1
PLoS ONE
6
e25090
2011
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
4
-
3
2
6
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
8
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
2
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
2
2
-
4
-
3
2
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
8
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
2
2
1
-
-
719715
Kimura
Glycine betaine biosynthesized ...
Myxococcus xanthus
J. Bacteriol.
192
1467-1470
2010
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
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1
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1
1
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1
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1
2
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-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
671647
Lu
Identification of glycine beta ...
Synechococcus sp. WH 8102
Arch. Microbiol.
186
495-506
2006
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
3
2
-
6
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
5
1
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
3
2
-
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-
1
-
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-
-
5
1
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
659286
Waditee
Isolation and functional chara ...
Aphanothece halophytica
J. Biol. Chem.
278
4932-4942
2003
1
-
1
-
2
-
12
9
-
-
3
5
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
9
2
1
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-
2
1
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-
-
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1
-
2
-
-
4
-
-
18
-
12
-
-
5
5
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
9
3
1
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
657578
Nyyssola
Characterization of glycine sa ...
Halorhodospira halochloris
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
67
2044-2050
2001
1
3
1
-
-
-
5
4
-
1
3
3
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
6
1
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
4
-
1
3
3
-
-
-
1
-
-
3
-
6
1
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
659145
Nyyssola
Extreme halophiles synthesize ...
Actinopolyspora halophila, Halorhodospira halochloris
J. Biol. Chem.
275
22196-22201
2000
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
6
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
6
-
13
1
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
6
-
13
1
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-