Literature summary for 1.14.15.24 extracted from

  • Fraser, P.D.; Miura, Y.; Misawa, N.
    In vitro characterization of astaxanthin biosynthetic enzymes (1997), J. Biol. Chem., 272, 6128-6135.
    View publication on PubMed

Activating Compound

Activating Compound Comment Organism Structure
additional information in the case of CrtZ, about a 6fold elevation of activity is experienced when the dioxygenase mixture (Fe2+, 2-oxoglutarate, ascorbic acid, and catalase) is used Pantoea ananatis
additional information in the case of CrtZ, about a 6fold elevation of activity is experienced when the dioxygenase mixture (Fe2+, 2-oxoglutarate, ascorbic acid, and catalase) is used, the addition of the dinucleotides NAD+, NADP+ and flavins FAD, FMN (at a concentration of 1 mM) to the incubations individually and in combination has no stimulatory effect Agrobacterium aurantiacum
additional information in the case of CrtZ, about a 6fold elevation of activity is experienced when the dioxygenase mixture (Fe2+, 2-oxoglutarate, ascorbic acid, and catalase) is used. The addition of the dinucleotides NAD+, NADP+ and flavins FAD, FMN (at a concentration of 1 mM) to the incubations individually and in combination has no stimulatory effect Alcaligenes sp.
additional information the addition of the dinucleotides NAD+, NADP+ and flavins FAD, FMN (at a concentration of 1 mM) to the incubations individually and in combination has no stimulatory effect Pantoea ananatis

Cloned(Commentary)

Cloned (Comment) Organism
expressed in Escherichia coli JM101 cells Alcaligenes sp.
expressed in Escherichia coli JM101 cells Pantoea ananatis
expressed in Escherichia coli JM101 cells Agrobacterium aurantiacum

Metals/Ions

Metals/Ions Comment Organism Structure
Fe2+ all incubations containing Fe2+ possess an activity higher than the control value, indicating that Fe2+ is the most influential effector Alcaligenes sp.
Fe2+ all incubations containing Fe2+ possess an activity higher than the control value, indicating that Fe2+ is the most influential effector Pantoea ananatis
Fe2+ all incubations containing Fe2+ possess an activity higher than the control value, indicating that Fe2+ is the most influential effector Agrobacterium aurantiacum
additional information the addition of Mg2+ and Mn2+ to the incubations individually and in combination has no stimulatory effect Alcaligenes sp.
additional information the addition of Mg2+ and Mn2+ to the incubations individually and in combination has no stimulatory effect Pantoea ananatis
additional information the addition of Mg2+ and Mn2+ to the incubations individually and in combination has no stimulatory effect Agrobacterium aurantiacum

Organism

Organism UniProt Comment Textmining
Alcaligenes sp.
-
-
-
Pantoea ananatis
-
-
-
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
-
-
-

Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]

Specific Activity Minimum [µmol/min/mg] Specific Activity Maximum [µmol/min/mg] Comment Organism
1000000
-
using canthaxanthin as substrate, at 30°C, in dark, aerobic conditions, for 3 h, pH not specified in the publication Agrobacterium aurantiacum
57000
-
using beta-carotene as substrate, at 30°C, in dark, aerobic conditions, for 3 h, pH not specified in the publication Alcaligenes sp.
467000
-
using canthaxanthin as substrate, at 30°C, in dark, aerobic conditions, for 3 h, pH not specified in the publication Alcaligenes sp.
617000
-
using beta-carotene as substrate, in 0.4 M Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, at 30°C, in dark, aerobic conditions, for 3 h, pH not specified in the publication Pantoea ananatis
100000
-
using canthaxanthin as substrate, in 0.4 M Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, at 30°C, in dark, aerobic conditions, for 3 h, pH not specified in the publication Pantoea ananatis
150000
-
using beta-carotene as substrate, at 30°C, in dark, aerobic conditions, for 3 h, pH not specified in the publication Agrobacterium aurantiacum

Substrates and Products (Substrate)

Substrates Comment Substrates Organism Products Comment (Products) Rev. Reac.
beta-carotene + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + 2 O2 overall reaction, the enzymes possess greater ability to convert beta-carotene to zeaxanthin than canthaxanthin to astaxanthin Pantoea ananatis zeaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
-
?
beta-carotene + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + 2 O2 overall reaction, the enzymes possess smaller ability to convert beta-carotene to zeaxanthin than canthaxanthin to astaxanthin Agrobacterium aurantiacum zeaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
-
?
adonirubin + reduced acceptor + H+ + O2
-
Alcaligenes sp. astaxanthin + acceptor + H2O
-
?
adonirubin + reduced acceptor + H+ + O2
-
Pantoea ananatis astaxanthin + acceptor + H2O
-
?
adonirubin + reduced acceptor + H+ + O2
-
Agrobacterium aurantiacum astaxanthin + acceptor + H2O
-
?
beta-carotene + NADPH + H+ + O2 overall reaction, the enzymes possess smaller ability to convert beta-carotene to zeaxanthin than canthaxanthin to astaxanthin Alcaligenes sp. zeaxanthin + NADP+ + H2O
-
?
beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2
-
Alcaligenes sp. zeaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
-
?
beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2
-
Pantoea ananatis zeaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
-
?
beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2
-
Agrobacterium aurantiacum zeaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
-
?
canthaxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2
-
Alcaligenes sp. adonirubin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
-
?
canthaxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2
-
Pantoea ananatis adonirubin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
-
?
canthaxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2
-
Agrobacterium aurantiacum adonirubin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
-
?
canthaxanthin + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + 2 O2 overall reaction, the enzymes possess greater ability to convert canthaxanthin to astaxanthin than beta-carotene to zeaxanthin Alcaligenes sp. astaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
-
?
canthaxanthin + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + 2 O2 overall reaction, the enzymes possess greater ability to convert canthaxanthin to astaxanthin than beta-carotene to zeaxanthin Agrobacterium aurantiacum astaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
-
?
canthaxanthin + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + 2 O2 overall reaction, the enzymes possess smaller ability to convert canthaxanthin to astaxanthin than beta-carotene to zeaxanthin Pantoea ananatis astaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
-
?
beta-carotene + reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2
-
Alcaligenes sp. beta-cryptoxanthin + oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
-
?
beta-carotene + reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2
-
Pantoea ananatis beta-cryptoxanthin + oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
-
?
beta-carotene + reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2
-
Agrobacterium aurantiacum beta-cryptoxanthin + oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
-
?

Synonyms

Synonyms Comment Organism
CrtZ
-
Alcaligenes sp.
CrtZ
-
Pantoea ananatis
CrtZ
-
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
carotenoid 3,(3')-beta-ionone ring hydroxylase
-
Alcaligenes sp.
carotenoid 3,(3')-beta-ionone ring hydroxylase
-
Pantoea ananatis
carotenoid 3,(3')-beta-ionone ring hydroxylase
-
Agrobacterium aurantiacum

Cofactor

Cofactor Comment Organism Structure
FAD
-
Alcaligenes sp.
FAD
-
Pantoea ananatis
FAD
-
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
additional information NADPH (1 mM) yields 2.5fold elevation in activity Alcaligenes sp.
additional information NADPH (1 mM) yields 2.5fold elevation in activity Pantoea ananatis
NADPH NADPH (1 mM) yields 2.5fold elevation in activity Agrobacterium aurantiacum
additional information the monooxygenase cofactors consist of FAD, NADPH, and ATP. This cofactor combination increases the activity of CrtZ about 1.5fold compared to the control Alcaligenes sp.
additional information the monooxygenase cofactors consist of FAD, NADPH, and ATP. This cofactor combination increases the activity of CrtZ about 1.5fold compared to the control Pantoea ananatis
additional information the monooxygenase cofactors consist of FAD, NADPH, and ATP. This cofactor combination increases the activity of CrtZ about 1.5fold compared to the control Agrobacterium aurantiacum