BRENDA - Enzyme Database
show all sequences of 1.1.2.4

D-Lactate dehydrogenase links methylglyoxal degradation and electron transport through cytochrome c

Welchen, E.; Schmitz, J.; Fuchs, P.; Garcia, L.; Wagner, S.; Wienstroer, J.; Schertl, P.; Braun, H.P.; Schwarzlaender, M.; Gonzalez, D.H.; Maurino, V.G.; Plant Physiol. 172, 901-912 (2016)

Data extracted from this reference:

Cloned(Commentary)
Cloned (Commentary)
Organism
gene DLD, expression of C-terminally GFP-tagged full-length enzyme under control of the CaMV35S promoter in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermi. Overexpression of D-LDH ameliorates the growth of wild-type plants in the presence of D-lactate and methylglyoxal and reverses the increased sensitivity of dldh loss-of-function lines to these compounds
Arabidopsis thaliana
Inhibitors
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
antimycin A does not affect the enzyme activity. Myxothiazol binds to the quinone-binding site and blocks electron transfer from ubiquinol to cytochrome b. At 20 mM myxothiazol the sensitivity of wild-type plants to D-lactate is not affected. Inhibition of complex III does not affect D-lactate oxidation
Arabidopsis thaliana
Localization
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
mitochondrial intermembrane space
localization of recombinantly expressed GFP-tagged enzyme
Arabidopsis thaliana
5758
-
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
110000
-
recombinant enzyme, native PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
ID
(R)-lactate + 2 ferricytochrome c
Arabidopsis thaliana
enzyme D-LDH is absolutely specific for these substrates in vivo
pyruvate + 2 ferrocytochrome c
-
-
?
Organism
Organism
UniProt
Commentary
Textmining
Arabidopsis thaliana
Q94AX4
-
-
Source Tissue
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
cell suspension culture
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
leaf
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
seedling
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
Substrate Product ID
(R)-lactate + 2 ferricytochrome c
-
743500
Arabidopsis thaliana
pyruvate + 2 ferrocytochrome c
-
-
-
?
(R)-lactate + 2 ferricytochrome c
enzyme D-LDH is absolutely specific for these substrates in vivo
743500
Arabidopsis thaliana
pyruvate + 2 ferrocytochrome c
-
-
-
?
additional information
D-LDH does not use glycolate as a substrate
743500
Arabidopsis thaliana
?
-
-
-
-
Subunits
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
homodimer
x * 62000, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
Synonyms
Synonyms
Commentary
Organism
AtD-LDH
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
D-lactate dehydrogenase [cytochrome], mitochondrial
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
D-lactate ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
DLD
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
glycolate deshydrogenase
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cofactor
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
cytochrome c
evaluation of the role of cytochrome c in D-lactate and methylglyoxal degradation. Recombinant expression of CYTC-1 in either the wild-type or cytc mutant background leads to increased tolerance to toxic concentrations of D-lactate and to a lesser extent also to methylglyoxal
Arabidopsis thaliana
additional information
ubiquinone and its associated dehydrogenase systems do not serve as electron acceptors and are upstream of the entry site of D-LDH-derived electrons into the electron transport chain
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
gene DLD, expression of C-terminally GFP-tagged full-length enzyme under control of the CaMV35S promoter in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermi. Overexpression of D-LDH ameliorates the growth of wild-type plants in the presence of D-lactate and methylglyoxal and reverses the increased sensitivity of dldh loss-of-function lines to these compounds
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cofactor (protein specific)
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
cytochrome c
evaluation of the role of cytochrome c in D-lactate and methylglyoxal degradation. Recombinant expression of CYTC-1 in either the wild-type or cytc mutant background leads to increased tolerance to toxic concentrations of D-lactate and to a lesser extent also to methylglyoxal
Arabidopsis thaliana
additional information
ubiquinone and its associated dehydrogenase systems do not serve as electron acceptors and are upstream of the entry site of D-LDH-derived electrons into the electron transport chain
Arabidopsis thaliana
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
antimycin A does not affect the enzyme activity. Myxothiazol binds to the quinone-binding site and blocks electron transfer from ubiquinol to cytochrome b. At 20 mM myxothiazol the sensitivity of wild-type plants to D-lactate is not affected. Inhibition of complex III does not affect D-lactate oxidation
Arabidopsis thaliana
Localization (protein specific)
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
mitochondrial intermembrane space
localization of recombinantly expressed GFP-tagged enzyme
Arabidopsis thaliana
5758
-
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
110000
-
recombinant enzyme, native PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
ID
(R)-lactate + 2 ferricytochrome c
Arabidopsis thaliana
enzyme D-LDH is absolutely specific for these substrates in vivo
pyruvate + 2 ferrocytochrome c
-
-
?
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
cell suspension culture
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
leaf
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
seedling
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
ID
(R)-lactate + 2 ferricytochrome c
-
743500
Arabidopsis thaliana
pyruvate + 2 ferrocytochrome c
-
-
-
?
(R)-lactate + 2 ferricytochrome c
enzyme D-LDH is absolutely specific for these substrates in vivo
743500
Arabidopsis thaliana
pyruvate + 2 ferrocytochrome c
-
-
-
?
additional information
D-LDH does not use glycolate as a substrate
743500
Arabidopsis thaliana
?
-
-
-
-
Subunits (protein specific)
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
homodimer
x * 62000, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE
Arabidopsis thaliana
General Information
General Information
Commentary
Organism
physiological function
transgenic plants overexpressing both D-LDH and cytochrome c have enhanced capacity to detoxify D-lactate and methylglyoxal, indicating that both proteins can be limiting factors in the detoxification process
Arabidopsis thaliana
General Information (protein specific)
General Information
Commentary
Organism
physiological function
transgenic plants overexpressing both D-LDH and cytochrome c have enhanced capacity to detoxify D-lactate and methylglyoxal, indicating that both proteins can be limiting factors in the detoxification process
Arabidopsis thaliana
Other publictions for EC
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Synonyms
Temperature Optimum [C]
Temperature Range [C]
Temperature Stability [C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
742052
Karkovska
Laboratory prototype of biore ...
Ogataea angusta, Ogataea angusta tr6
BioMed Res. Int.
2016
4652876
2016
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1
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1
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1
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7
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5
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
743500
Welchen
D-Lactate dehydrogenase links ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Plant Physiol.
172
901-912
2016
-
-
1
-
-
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1
-
1
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1
1
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1
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3
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3
1
5
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2
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1
2
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1
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1
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3
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3
1
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1
1
-
-
-
743861
Smutok
D-Lactate-selective amperomet ...
Ogataea angusta, Ogataea angusta tr6
Talanta
125
227-232
2014
-
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1
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1
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2
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7
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1
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2
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1
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740447
de Bari
Prostate cancer cells metaboli ...
Homo sapiens
FEBS Lett.
587
467-473
2013
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1
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4
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1
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2
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4
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2
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1
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1
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2
2
-
-
-
698932
Engqvist
Two D-2-hydroxy-acid dehydroge ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
J. Biol. Chem.
284
25026-25037
2009
-
-
1
-
1
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5
-
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2
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4
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1
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8
1
2
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5
1
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1
2
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1
2
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1
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5
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2
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1
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8
1
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5
1
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1
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1
1
-
5
5
706465
Pohanka
-
D-Lactate dehydrogenase (cytoc ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Pol. J. Chem.
83
415-420
2009
-
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1
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685358
Mourier
Kinetic activation of yeast mi ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1777
1283-1288
2008
3
-
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3
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703801
Pohanka
-
Amperometric biosensor for D-l ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Food Technol. Biotechnol.
46
107-110
2008
-
1
-
-
-
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1
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1
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672749
Hao
Pseudomonas stutzeri as a nove ...
Pseudomonas stutzeri
Biotechnol. Lett.
29
105-110
2007
1
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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684629
Ma
Membrane-bound L- and D-lactat ...
Pseudomonas stutzeri
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
77
91-98
2007
-
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1
1
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1
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3
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672323
Atlante
Transport and metabolism of D- ...
Helianthus tuberosus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1708
13-22
2005
-
-
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1
2
1
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2
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1
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1
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655064
Horikiri
Electron acquisition system co ...
Rhodopseudomonas palustris
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
68
516-522
2004
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
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2
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1
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1
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2
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
1
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1
1
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2
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1
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2
1
1
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1
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1
1
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389633
Lodi
Regulation of the Saccharomyce ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Mol. Gen. Genet.
262
623-632
1999
1
-
1
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1
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2
1
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1
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2
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389632
Lodi
Transcriptional regulation of ...
Kluyveromyces lactis
Curr. Genet.
34
12-20
1998
-
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1
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1
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1
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3
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389631
Lodi
Carbon catabolite repression i ...
Kluyveromyces lactis
Mol. Gen. Genet.
244
622-629
1994
-
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1
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389630
Ogata
D-Lactate dehydrogenase of Des ...
Desulfovibrio vulgaris
J. Biochem.
89
1423-1431
1981
1
-
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5
1
1
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1
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389628
Olson
Purification and properties of ...
Megasphaera elsdenii
Biochemistry
18
4714-4723
1979
-
-
-
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1
1
1
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3
2
1
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1
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1
1
2
1
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389629
Olson
Suicide inactivation of the fl ...
Megasphaera elsdenii
Biochemistry
18
4724-4731
1979
-
-
-
-
-
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2
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1
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1
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1
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3
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2
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2
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1
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1
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3
-
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287801
Hatefi
-
Metal-containing flavoprotein ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The Enzymes, 3rd Ed. (Boyer, P. D. , ed. )
13
175-297
1976
-
-
-
-
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1
4
1
4
1
1
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1
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3
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4
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1
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1
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3
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389626
Brockman
D-lactate dehydrogenase of Pep ...
Megasphaera elsdenii
Methods Enzymol.
41B
309-312
1975
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3
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389623
Gregolin
The lactic dehydrogenase of ye ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
67
201-218
1963
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4
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389625
Nygaard
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Lactate dehydrogenases of yeas ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The Enzymes, 2nd Ed (Boyer, P. D. , Lardy, H. , Myrbck, K. , eds. )
7
557-565
1963
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389624
Nygaard
D(-)-lactic cytochrome c reduc ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Biol. Chem.
236
920-925
1961
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3
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