Ligand putrescine

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Basic Ligand Information

Molecular Structure
Picture of putrescine (click for magnification)
Molecular Formula
BRENDA Name
InChIKey
C4H12N2
putrescine
KIDHWZJUCRJVML-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Synonyms:
1,4-butanediamine, 1,4-diaminobutane, butane-1,4-diamine, Diaminobutane, NH2(CH2)4NH2, Tetramethylenediamine


Show all pahtways known for Show all BRENDA pathways known for putrescine

Roles as Enzyme Ligand

In Vivo Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (38 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
putrescine + O2 + H2O = 4-aminobutanal + NH3 + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
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putrescine + H2O + O2 = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde + putrescine + NADPH + H+ = carboxyspermidine + H2O + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
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S-adenosyl-L-methionine + putrescine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N-methylputrescine
show the reaction diagram
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caffeoyl-CoA + putrescine = CoA + N-caffeoylputrescine
show the reaction diagram
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acetyl-CoA + putrescine = CoA + acetylputrescine
show the reaction diagram
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putrescine + pyruvate = 4-aminobutanal + alanine
show the reaction diagram
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putrescine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-aminobutanal + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
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In Vivo Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (11 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
N-carbamoylputrescine + H2O = putrescine + CO2 + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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agmatine + H2O = putrescine + urea
show the reaction diagram
-
-
D-ornithine = putrescine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-
L-ornithine = putrescine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-
L-ornithine = putrescine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-

Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (165 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
putrescine + O2 + H2O = 4-aminobutanal + NH3 + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
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putrescine + O2 + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
putrescine + H2O + 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol = 4-aminobutanal + NH3 + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol
show the reaction diagram
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L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde + putrescine + NADPH + H+ = carboxyspermidine + H2O + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
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carbamoyl phosphate + diaminobutane = phosphate + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
2 sinapoyl-CoA + putrescine = ?
show the reaction diagram
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acetyl-CoA + 1,4-butanediamine = ?
show the reaction diagram
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S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine + putrescine = 5'-S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + spermidine
show the reaction diagram
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S-adenosylmethioninamine + putrescine = 5'-S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + spermidine
show the reaction diagram
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putrescine + pyruvate = 4-aminobutanal + alanine
show the reaction diagram
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1,4-diaminobutane + pyruvate = ? + L-alanine
show the reaction diagram
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Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (49 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
carboxyspermidine + NADP+ + H2O = L-aspartic 4-semialdehyde + putrescine + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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-
carboxyspermidine + H2O + NADP+ = L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde + putrescine + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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[eIF5A-precursor]-lysine + homospermidine = [eIF5A-precursor]-deoxyhypusine + putrescine
show the reaction diagram
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acetylputrescine + H2O = acetate + putrescine
show the reaction diagram
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acetylputrescine + H2O = acetate + putrescine
show the reaction diagram
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N-acetylputrescine + H2O = acetate + putrescine
show the reaction diagram
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agmatine + H2O = 1,4-diaminobutane + urea
show the reaction diagram
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agmatine + H2O = putrescine + urea
show the reaction diagram
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agmatine + H2O = putrescine + urea
show the reaction diagram
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agmatine + H2O = putrescine + urea
show the reaction diagram
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D-ornithine = putrescine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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L-ornithine = 1,4-diaminobutane + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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L-ornithine = putrescine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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L-gamma-glutamylputrescine = putrescine + 5-oxo-L-proline
show the reaction diagram
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Activator in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (326 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
11% activation at 5 mM
-
up to 50% stimulation at 1 mm
-
activates, inhibitory at optimal Mg2+ concentration
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stimulates
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slight stimulation
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aliphatic, positively charged polyamine, required for in vitro activity of ORF47, polyamine depletion leads to 80% reduced activity
-
optimal polymerization activity requires polyamines, 2fold increase in activity at 30 mM
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can replace missing Mg2+ to a small extent
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divalent cation, metal or polyamine is required, 0.01 M putrescine is as effective as Mg2+
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activate in presence of Mg2+, no activation in absence of Mg2+. Effective at 2-5 mM
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PLC d1
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activity is increased 6fold at 10 mM
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maximal stimulation at 6 mM
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activating
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but it inhibits at concentrations about 14 mM agmatine
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treatment of peach shoots from Mochizuki with exogenous putrescine (indirect product of ADC) remarkably induces accumulation of ADC mRNA, incubation of shoots in 1 and 5 mM exogenous putrescine for 2 days leads to obvious and significant increase in endogenous putrescine
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enhances activity against poly(C) and yeast RNA
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can partially replace Mg2+ in activation, with 32% efficiency
-
optimal concentration: 5.5 mM
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Inhibitor in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (110 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
i.e. 1,4-diaminobutane
-
85% of initial activity at 0.5 mM
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12 mM
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the early decrease of glutathione reductase activity in leaves treated with polyamines can be due to a direct interaction of these compounds with the enzyme
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inhibition at optimal Mg2+-concentration
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1 mM, 42% inhibition
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10 mM, 74% inhibition in the presence of 0.5 mM N-acetyl-L-glutamate
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above 30 mM
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1 mM, less than 50% inhibition
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15-25% inhibition with 5 mM; 15-25% inhibition with 5 mM; 15-25% inhibition with 5 mM
-
putrescine is less efficient than divalent cations in reducing isoform PLCbeta1 activity
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putrescine, glycogen debranching enzyme, slight inhibition
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inhibition above 6 mM
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weak
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3D Structure of Enzyme-Ligand-Complex (PDB) (27 results)

Enzyme Kinetic Parameters

kcat Value (Turnover Number) (68 results)

EC NUMBER
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/S]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM [1/S]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.025
-
pH 8.5, 37C
0.3
-
pH 7.3, 30C, recombinant His6-tagged enzyme
0.0032
-
+ spermidine
5.94
-
pH 8.0 37C, recombinant enzyme

KM Value (165 results)

EC NUMBER
KM VALUE [MM]
KM VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.0225
-
-
43.5
-
pH 8.5, 37C
0.2369
-
pH 7.3, 30C, recombinant His6-tagged enzyme
3.85
-
pH 7.5, 78C
0.0769
-
pH 10.0, temperature not specified in the publication
2.5
-
-
44.6
-
pH 8.0 37C, recombinant enzyme

Ki Value (13 results)

EC NUMBER
KI VALUE [MM]
KI VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
19.1
-
at pH 8.0 and 55C
0.13
-
pH 6.0, 25C
0.0615
-
37C, pH 7.0; pH 7.5, 37C, recombinant AtPAO3
0.0017
-
-
90
-
pH 8.0, 37C
1.45
-
-

References & Links