RNAi-mediated reduction of FRK2 activity in developing wood of hybrid aspen lead to the accumulation of soluble neutral sugars and a decrease in hexose phosphates and UDP-glucose. Reduced FRK2 activity also leads to thinner fiber cell walls with a reduction in the proportion of cellulose
cotton plants transformed with a tomato fructokinase gene (FRK1) under the control of the CMV 35S promoter show increased fibre and leaf FRK activity over nonexpressing nulls, but not improved fibre length and strength. Compared with the nulls, FRK1 plants yield 13-100% more seed-cotton mass per boll and more bolls per. The enhanced yield is related to a greater seed number per boll for FRK1 plants. Photosynthetic rates are not appreciably different among genotypes. However, more area per leaf and leaf number for FRK1 plants than for nulls enhances the capacity for C gain. Larger leaf areas for FRK1 plants are associated with larger stem diameters
suppression of isoform FRK3 reduces the stem xylem area, stem and root water conductance, and whole-plant transpiration, with minor effects on plant development. Suppression of FRK3 accompanied by partial suppression of isoform FRK2 induces significant growth-inhibition effects, including the wilting of mature leaves. These growth effects are imposed primarily by the leaves, whose petioles have unlignified, thinwalled xylem fibers with collapsed parenchyma cells around the vessels
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the crystal structures of ROK FK from Bacillus subtilis (a) apo and in the presence of (b) ADP and (c) ADP/D-fructose is shown. All structures show that YdhR is a homo-dimer with a monomer composed of two similar alpha/beta domains forming a large cleft between domains that bind ADP and D-fructose
crystal structure of a FRK homolog from Halothermothrix orenii refined to 2.8 A resolution is reported. The structure of the Hore_18220 protein reveals a catalytic domain with a Rossmann-like fold and a beta-sheet lid for dimerization
wild-type mice that receive delayed hydration develop renal injury, with elevated serum creatinine, increased urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, proximal tubular injury, and renal inflammation and fibrosis. This is associated with activation of the polyol pathway, with increased renal cortical sorbitol and fructose levels. Fructokinase-knockout mice with delayed hydration are protected from renal injury. Access to sufficient water during the dehydration period can protect mice from developing renal injury. Studies provide a potential mechanism for Mesoamerican nephropathy