Information on EC 1.3.99.39 - carotenoid phi-ring synthase

for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC1.3.99.39
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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.3.99.39
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
carotenoid phi-ring synthase
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REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
carotenoid beta-end group + 2 acceptor = carotenoid phi-end group + 2 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
chlorobactene biosynthesis
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isorenieratene biosynthesis I (actinobacteria)
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isorenieratene biosynthesis II (Chlorobiaceae)
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Carotenoid biosynthesis
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
carotenoid beta-ring:acceptor oxidoreductase/methyltranferase (phi-ring forming)
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
beta-carotene + 2 acceptor
beta-isorenieratene + 2 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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?
beta-carotene + 2 acceptor
isoneriatene + 2 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
beta-isorenieratene + 2 acceptor
isorenieratene + 2 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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?
gamma-carotene + 2 acceptor
chlorobactene + 2 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
additional information
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enzyme is responsible for the conversion of beta-carotene via beta-isorenieratene to isorenieratene by a desaturation/methyltransferation mechanism. Upon introduction of two additional double bonds leading to amortization of the ionone ring, one of the methyl groups of C-1 (and also 1' at the other side) is lost and transferred to position 2
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
beta-carotene + 2 acceptor
beta-isorenieratene + 2 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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?
beta-isorenieratene + 2 acceptor
isorenieratene + 2 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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?
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Rhodococcus erythropolis
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
synthesis
expression of CrtU in the beta-carotene ketolase (crtO) knockout Rhodococcus erythropolis host produces higher purity chlorobactene than expression in the wild-type Rhodococcus host. Yeast extract medium supplemented with fructose gives the highest total yield of chlorobactene. In a 10-l fermentor, about 18 mg of chlorobactene is produced