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Information on EC 1.17.1.4 - xanthine dehydrogenase

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EC Tree
     1 Oxidoreductases
         1.17 Acting on CH or CH2 groups
             1.17.1 With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
                1.17.1.4 xanthine dehydrogenase
IUBMB Comments
Acts on a variety of purines and aldehydes, including hypoxanthine. The mammalian enzyme can also convert all-trans retinol to all-trans-retinoate, while the substrate is bound to a retinoid-binding protein . The enzyme from eukaryotes contains [2Fe-2S], FAD and a molybdenum centre. The mammalian enzyme predominantly exists as the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (EC 1.17.1.4). During purification the enzyme is largely converted to an O2-dependent form, xanthine oxidase (EC 1.17.3.2). The conversion can be triggered by several mechanisms, including the oxidation of cysteine thiols to form disulfide bonds [2,6,8,15] [which can be catalysed by EC 1.8.4.7, enzyme-thiol transhydrogenase (glutathione-disulfide) in the presence of glutathione disulfide] or limited proteolysis, which results in irreversible conversion. The conversion can also occur in vivo [2,7,15].
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Word Map
The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms
Synonyms
xdh/xo, xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase, atxdh1, paoabc, xanthine:nad+ oxidoreductase, ec 1.1.1.204, xanthine-nad oxidoreductase, xanthine/nad+ oxidoreductase, xanthine dehydrogenase-1, more
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
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ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
xanthine + NAD+ + H2O = urate + NADH + H+
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