Information on EC 1.14.99.63 - beta-carotene 4-ketolase

for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC1.14.99.63
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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.14.99.63
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
beta-carotene 4-ketolase
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REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
beta-carotene + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2 = echinenone + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
show the reaction diagram
(1)
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echinenone + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2 = canthaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O
show the reaction diagram
(2)
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
astaxanthin biosynthesis (bacteria, fungi, algae)
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flexixanthin biosynthesis
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Carotenoid biosynthesis
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
beta-carotene,donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (echinenone-forming)
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
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possible interactions between the beta-carotene ketolase bkt1 and beta-carotene hydroxylases that impact partitioning of carbon flux into different carotenoid branch pathways
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
beta-carotene + acceptor + O2
canthaxanthin + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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enzymes CrtW38 and CrtW148
via echinenone as intermediate
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?
zeaxanthin + acceptor + O2
astaxanthin + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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enzyme CrtW148
via adonixanthin as intermediate
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?
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Haematococcus lacustris
expressed in Escherichia coli
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overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana using a double CaMV35S-bkt1 ketolase construct, individual co-expression with different Arabidopsis thaliana beta-carotene hydroxylases, i.e. AtB, CYP97A3, CYP97B3, and CYP97C1, under the control of a double CaMV35S promoter. Hydroxylase overexpression in combination with beta-carotene ketolase does not result in keto-carotenoid accumulation, but in unexpected patterns of alpha-carotene derivatives, accompanied by a reduction of alpha-carotene, instead, overview
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
upon transfer to high light, the transcript levels of all investigated carotenogenic genes including those coding for phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase and both ketolases are increased. Transcription changes proceed via binding of the transcription factor NtcA to the promoter regions of the carotenogenic genes. The binding is absolutely dependent on the presence of reductants and oxo-glutarate and inhibited by 3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea