Information on EC 1.13.99.1 - inositol oxygenase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.13.99.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
inositol oxygenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
myo-Inositol + O2 = D-glucuronate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
C-H bond cleavage
dehydrogenation
-
-
hydroxylation
-
-
oxidation
-
four-electron oxidation of myo-inositol to D-glucuronate
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate biosynthesis (from myo-inositol)
-
-
Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
-
-
Inositol phosphate metabolism
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
myo-Inositol:oxygen oxidoreductase
An iron protein.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9029-59-8
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
i.e. Pichia pastoris
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
i.e. Pichia pastoris
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. Nipponbare
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
-
increase in MIOX enzyme activity is in proportion to serum glucose concentrations and may be responsible for the myo-inositol depletion found in the type I diabetes mellitus complications, detailed phenotype analysis of 130 Caucasian patients, overview
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
D-chiro-inositol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-chiro-inositol + O2
D-glucuronate
show the reaction diagram
much less active with D-chiro-inositol than with myo-inositol
-
-
-
myo-inositol + H2O
D-glucuronate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
myo-inositol + O2
d-glucuronate
show the reaction diagram
myo-inositol + O2
D-glucuronate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
myo-inositol + O2
D-glucuronic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
myo-inositol + O2
d-glucuronate
show the reaction diagram
myo-inositol + O2
D-glucuronate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
myo-inositol + O2
D-glucuronic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
flavin
-
5. 6 mMol per mol of enzyme
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,10-phenanthroline
-
2,4,6-Tripyridyl-(2)-1,3,5-triazine
-
-
2-Thenoyltrifluoroacetone
-
slight
3-Aminopicolinate
-
-
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate)
-
-
6-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4,8-dihydronaphthalene-1,3,8-triol
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docking energy level (Kcal/mol): -6.9602
8-hydroxyquinoline
alpha,alpha'-bipyridine
-
-
alpha-ketoglutarate
-
-
arsenite
-
-
ascochitine
-
docking energy level (Kcal/mol): -9.5382
azide
Barbital
-
-
cyanide
D-glucarate
D-Glucodialdehyde
-
weak
diethyldithiocarbamate
-
-
EDTA
-
-
Epi-Inositol
-
-
Fe3+
-
-
ferricyanide
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-
ferrocyanide
-
-
Furoylthiofluoroacetone
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slight
-
glyoxylate
-
-
H2O2
-
-
heritonin
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docking energy level (Kcal/mol): -10.4072
hydroxylamine
-
-
iodoacetate
menadione
-
-
myo-Inosose-1
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-
N-ethylmaleimide
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slight
o-phenanthroline
oxalacetate
-
-
oxalate
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
Phenobarbital
-
-
Phenylmercuric nitrate
-
-
pyruvate
-
-
Quinacrine hydrochloride
-
slight
riboflavin phosphate
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-
Sodium borohydride
-
-
stigmasterol
-
docking energy level (Kcal/mol): -14.589
taraxasterol
-
docking energy level (Kcal/mol): -14.8894
tetrahydrofolic acid
-
-
tretinoin
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docking energy level (Kcal/mol): -12.1034
UDP
-
-
Uridine diphosphoglucose
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xanthurenic acid
-
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3-Mercaptopicolinate
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activation
cysteine
D-cysteine
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best activation system: 1 mM Fe(II) and 2 mM cysteine, L-cysteine can be replaced by D-cysteine, DL-penicillamine or gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
DL-Penicillamine
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best activation system: 1 mM Fe(II) and 2 mM cysteine, L-cysteine can be replaced by D-cysteine, DL-penicillamine or gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
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best activation system: 1 mM Fe(II) and 2 mM cysteine, L-cysteine can be replaced by D-cysteine, DL-penicillamine or gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
L-cysteine
palmitate
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concomitant treatment with palmitate/bovine serum albumin and activators of PKA (forskolin), PDK/PI3K (insulin), and PKC (TPA) increase Miox activity. Concomitant treatment with respective inhibitors, i.e. H89 (PKA), wortmannin (PI3K), and calphostin (PKC), reduces the activity below the levels induced by palmitate/bovine serum albumin alone, confirming that fatty acid-induced activity is phosphorylation-dependent
quinolinate
additional information
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.2 - 22.1
Inositol
3.3 - 45
myo-inositol
0.0095 - 0.06
O2
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
7.22
Inositol
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-
0.183
myo-inositol
with Fe(2+) and L-cysteine as activators
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.02
1,10-phenanthroline
-
0.01
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.005
-
culture condition: 1 day, 30°C
0.008
-
culture condition: 2 day, 30°C
0.01
-
culture condition: 3 day, 30°C
0.015
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culture condition: 12 h, without supplementation of myo-inositol
0.028
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culture condition: without supplementation of myo-inositol
0.042
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culture condition: 12 h, supplementation with 60 mM myo-inositol, 1 mM Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2, 2 mM L-cysteine
0.076
-
culture condition: 12 h, supplementation with 60 mM myo-inositol
0.18
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culture condition: 6 h, supplementation with 60 mM myo-inositol, 1 mM Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2, 2 mM L-cysteine
0.43
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culture condition: 6 h, supplementation with 60 mM myo-inositol
additional information
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.8 - 7.2
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-
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4.5 - 10
almost no activity at pH 4.5, approx. 10% of maximal ativity at pH 10.0, approx. 70% of maximal activity at pH 8.0, i.e. a second optima
6.5 - 7.4
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sharp decrease of activity below pH 6.5 and above pH 7.4
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
35
-
assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0 - 60
approx. 30% of maximal activity at 0°C and 50°C, respectively
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4.93
-
sequence calculation
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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is expressed at low levels in cell types where diabetic complications occur
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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MIOX1 and MIOX2 are expressed in almost all tissues of the plant
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
PDB
SCOP
CATH
UNIPROT
ORGANISM
Q9UGB7
Homo sapiens;
Mus musculus;
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
16800
-
2 * 16800, dimer is the elementary active enzyme-building unit, oligomer (MW 270000) can be dissociated under mild conditions to monomers (MW 16800); x * 16800, smallest active unit is tetramer, it is in a pH-dependent equilibrium with species consisting of 8, 12 and 16 subunits
17000
-
12 * 17000, smallest active unit is tetramer, it is in a pH-dependent equilibrium with species consisting of 8, 12 and 16 subunits; 16 * 17000, smallest active unit is tetramer, it is in a pH-dependent equilibrium with species consisting of 8, 12 and 16 subunits; 4 * 17000, gel filtration, smallest active unit is tetramer, which is in a pH-dependent equilibrium with species consisting of 8, 12 and 16 subunits; 8 * 17000, smallest active unit is tetramer, it is in a pH-dependent equilibrium with species consisting of 8, 12 and 16 subunits
32000
-
SDS-PAGE
32663
electrospray MS determination, gel filtration, SDS-PAGE, sedimentation equilibirum, enzyme does not undergo oligomerization in the presence of myo-inositol
37000
1 * 37000, SDS-PAGE
65000
-
pig, gel filtration, SDS-PAGE
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
dimer
-
2 * 16800, dimer is the elementary active enzyme-building unit, oligomer (MW 270000) can be dissociated under mild conditions to monomers (MW 16800)
dodecamer
-
12 * 17000, smallest active unit is tetramer, it is in a pH-dependent equilibrium with species consisting of 8, 12 and 16 subunits
hexadecamer
-
16 * 17000, smallest active unit is tetramer, it is in a pH-dependent equilibrium with species consisting of 8, 12 and 16 subunits
monomer
octamer
-
8 * 17000, smallest active unit is tetramer, it is in a pH-dependent equilibrium with species consisting of 8, 12 and 16 subunits
oligomer
-
x * 16800, smallest active unit is tetramer, it is in a pH-dependent equilibrium with species consisting of 8, 12 and 16 subunits
tetramer
-
4 * 17000, gel filtration, smallest active unit is tetramer, which is in a pH-dependent equilibrium with species consisting of 8, 12 and 16 subunits
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
phosphoprotein
-
mutants with substituted phosphorylation sites have a minimal increase in activity. Treatment of cells with PKC, PKA, and PDK1 kinase activators increased activity, whereas inhibitors reduced it. Protein kinases A, C, and PDK1 are capable of phosphorylating mouse in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Using deletion constructs it is shown that the N-terminus contains the critical phosphorylation sites that are highly relevant to the functionality of the protein
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
in complex with myo-inosose-1 bound in a terminal mode to the enzyme's diiron cluster site. The N-terminus is important, through coordination of a set of loops covering the active site, in shielding the active site during catalysis. Role of residue K127 in governing the access o the diiron cluster
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crystals grow from a solution containing 20 mg/ml MIOX, 20 mM myo-inositol, 50 mM Mes pH 6.0, 50 mM NaCl, 2 mM Tris(2-carboxyethyl)-phosphine hydrochloride and 4.4 M sodium formate
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sitting drop vapour diffusion method producing crystals from unbuffered 4.4 M sodium formate
-
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
34
-
inactivation during 15 min assay
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
after storage at 4°C for few weeks, a specific truncation due to degradation is observed, extended storage also causes the accumulation of a small proportion of apparantly dimerized MIOX
Catalase protects from H2O2 inactivation
-
Completely active even in absence of Fe(II) and cysteine if it has been stored at -20°C for days to weeks at pH 6.0 with 1 mM glutathione
-
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Highly unstable in presence of oxygen, in early stages of inactivation: reactivation by reducing agents like NaBH4
-
6870
Sensitive to oxidants: H2O2, ferricyanide, FeCl3, CuSO4, HgCl2
-
6875
Sensitive to reductants, e.g. ferrocyanide
-
6875
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20°C for weeks or months: activation -20°C, completely active even in absence of Fe(II) and cysteine for days to weeks at pH 6.0 with 1 mM glutathione
-
-20°C, extensive loss of activity after 1 or 2 days
-
0°C, 12 h, extensive loss of activity
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
affinity chromatography
-
AG1-X8 resin column chromatography
-
ammonium sulfate, DEAE-column, butyl-Sepharose, Superdex 75, Mono Q
DEAESepharose FF column chromatography and Sephacryl S-200 HR chromatography
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Ni2+-affinity chromatography
-
Ni2+-affinity chromatography and S200 HR10/30 column chromatography
-
recombinant MIOX
recombinant MIOX4
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
expressed in Escherichia coli in the presence of the iron chelator, 1,10-phenanthroline to create iron-free MIOX
-
expression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens; expression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens; expression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens; expression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens
expression in epithelial cell line LLC-PK1
-
expression in Escherichia coli
gene AtMIOX1, phylogenetic tree, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase enzyme expression analysis
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gene GsMIOX1a, genetic structure, phylogenetic tree, ectopic expression under control of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to enhanced tolerance to alkaline stress, while expression of enzyme mutant atmiox1 mutant decreases alkaline stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia, quantitative real-time PCR enzyme expression analysis. The expression levels of some alkaline stress-responsive and inducible marker genes, including H+-Ppase, NADP-ME, KIN1 and RD29B, are also up-regulated in GsMIOX1a overexpression lines compared with the wild-type and atmiox1 mutant expressing plants
gene MIOX, kidney-specific expression, recombinant expression of GST-tagged enzyme in HEK-293 cells, cleavage of the GST tag by thrombin
-
gene MIOX, quantitative enzyme expression analysis
gene MIOX, quantitative real-time PCR enzyme expression analysis
gene MIOX, quantitative real-time PCR enzyme expression analysis, overexpression of MIOX in LLC-PK1 cells boosts the generation of H2O2
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gene miox, recombinant expression in Pichia pastoris, coexpression with urinate dehydrogenase (Udh) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as fusion protein
gene MIOX1, transient recombinant overexpression of GFP-tagged OsMIOX, co-localizing with the endoplasmic reticulum marker, in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts, quantitative real-Time PCR enzyme expression analysis, recombinant expression of GST-tagged OsMIOX1 with MBP-tagged PeaT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the two-hybrid-system
gene mMIOX, recombinant expression in Pichia pastoris, coexpression with urinate dehydrogenase (Udh) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440, recombinant coexpression of the enzyme in Escherichia coli with myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and urinate dehydrogenase (Udh) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440
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genotyping of MIOX in Caucasian type I diabetes mellitus patients, overview
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in Arabidpsis thaliana, myo-inositol oxygenase is encoded by four genes, gene MIOX1, quantitative real-time PCR enzyme expression analysis; in Arabidpsis thaliana, myo-inositol oxygenase is encoded by four genes, gene MIOX2, quantitative real-time PCR enzyme expression analysis; in Arabidpsis thaliana, myo-inositol oxygenase is encoded by four genes, gene MIOX4, quantitative real-time PCR enzyme expression analysis; in Arabidpsis thaliana, myo-inositol oxygenase is encoded by four genes, gene MIOX5, quantitative real-time PCR enzyme expression analysis
-
open reading frame of 849 base pairs
transfection into NRK-52E cells
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
445.7fold gene induction in syncytia induced by nematode Heterodera schachtii; 445.7fold gene induction in syncytia induced by nematode Heterodera schachtii; 7.64fold gene induction in syncytia induced by nematode Heterodera schachtii; gene induction in syncytia induced by nematode Heterodera schachtii
administration of high-fat diet to CD1 mice over a period of 2-6 weeks induces a tremendous increase in the expression of Miox, exclusively confined to the tubular compartment of the kidney cortex. Besides the increased expression in superficial cortical tubules, it also extends into the deeper cortex. Upregulation of Miox is accompanied by upregulation of mSrebp1 in kidney cells. Rapamycin reverses palmitate/bovine serum albumin-induced Miox, Srebp1, and p53 expression and apoptosis in renal tubular cells
all MIOX genes are strongly expressed in syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis thaliana roots; all MIOX genes are strongly expressed in syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis thaliana roots; all MIOX genes are strongly expressed in syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis thaliana roots; all MIOX genes are strongly expressed in syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis thaliana roots
antioxidants N-acetylcysteine, beta-naphthoflavone, and tertiary butyl hydroquinone reduces MIOX expression
-
coexpression of the Pichia pastoris ppMIOX and the urinate dehydrogenase (Udh) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 does not lead to accumulation of glucaric acid from myo-inositol or increased enzyme activity of neither MIOX nor Udh
diabetic, nephropathy
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genes encoding the enzyme are strongly expressed in syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots
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GsMIOX1a is rapidly induced by alkaline stress. Under alkaline stress, GsMIOX1a expression levels increase and reach a maximum level at 6 h that is approximately 42fold higher than that at 0 h
high glucose levels, exposure of cells to oxidants H2O2 and methylglyoxal up-regulates MIOX expression
-
high-fat diet administration over a period of 6 weeks results in a marked time-dependent up-regulation of Miox
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MIOX2 expression is suppressed by exogenous glucose addition in the shoot, but not in the root; MIOX4 expression is suppressed by exogenous glucose addition in the shoot,but not in the root
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OsMIOX enzyme expression is highly enhanced in rice plants overexpressing the Alternaria tenuissima PeaT1 gene during drought stress, the plants show enhanced drought stress tolerance and increased the survival rate following a drought treatment
palmitate-conjugated bovine serum albumin causes a dose-dependent increase in Miox expression and activity in LLCPK-1 cells. Concomitant with Miox upregulation, a dose-dependent increased Bax protein expression is observed following palmitate/BSA treatment of LLCPK-1 cells. Concomitant treatment with palmitate/bovine serum albumin and activators of PKA (forskolin), PDK/PI3K (insulin), and PKC (TPA) further increase Miox activity
-
the enzyme expression is upregulated under high glucose treatment in LLC-PK1 cells, a tubular cell line. Under high-glucose ambience, MIOX overexpression accentuates redox imbalance, perturbed NAD+/NADH ratios, increased ROS generation, depleted reduced glutathione, reduced GSH/GSSG ratio, and enhanced adaptive changes in the profile of the antioxidant defense system. These changes are also accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunctions, DNA damage and induction of apoptosis, accentuated activity of profibrogenic cytokine, and expression of fibronectin, the latter two being the major hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy. These perturbations are largely blocked by various reactive oxygen species inhibitors (Mito Q, diphenyleneiodonium chloride, and N-acetylcysteine) and MIOX/NOX4 siRNA, overview
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transcriptional and translational modulation of myo-inositol oxygenase (Miox) by fatty acids, overview
treatment of HK-2 cells with palmitate/bovine serum albumin for 24 h induces an increased Miox expression with a concomitant decrease in the membrane-bound precursor form of pre-Srebp1 in the cytoplasmic fraction. No change in the expression of beta-actin or laminB1 is observed. Miox is transcriptionally upregulated by high glucose ambience. A dose-dependent increase in the expression of Miox is observed following insulin treatment. At the same time, a dose-dependent increase in the mSrebp1 is observed. Rapamycin reverses palmitate/bovine serum albumin-induced Miox, Srebp1, and p53 expression and apoptosis in renal tubular cells
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upregulation of MIOX accompanied by mitochondrial fragmentation and depolarization, inhibition of autophagy/mitophagy, and altered expression of mitochondrial dynamic and mitophagic proteins under high-glucose ambience
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
DELTA miox 1+2
double mutant, smaller syncytia, less female nematodes per plant; double mutant, smaller syncytia, less female nematodes per plant
delta miox 4+5
double mutant, smaller syncytia, less female nematodes per plant; double mutant, smaller syncytia, less female nematodes per plant
DELTA miox1
single knockout mutant of one allele of MIOX
delta miox2
single knockout mutant of one allele of MIOX
delta miox5
single knockout mutant of one allele of MIOX; single knockout mutant of one allele of MIOX
S24A/S205A/S218A/T29A/T69A
-
mutated putative PKA phosphorylation sites: mutant is also phosphorylated but to a minor degree
S24A/S205A/S218A/T29A/T69A/S64A/T40A/T49A/T69A/T253A
-
mutated putative PKA and PKC phosphorylation sites: mutant is also phosphorylated but to a minor degree
S64A/T40A/T49A/T69A/T253A
-
mutated putative PKC phosphorylation sites: mutant is also phosphorylated but to a minor degree
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
diagnostics
-
the kidney-specific protein myo-inositol oxygenase is a potential biomarker of acute kidney injury, AKI
medicine