1.3.5.5: 15-cis-phytoene desaturase

This is an abbreviated version!
For detailed information about 15-cis-phytoene desaturase, go to the full flat file.

Reaction

15,9'-dicis-phytofluene
+
plastoquinone
=
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene
+
plastoquinol

Synonyms

BoPDS, CitPDS1, CrtP, PDS, PDS1, PDS3

ECTree

     1 Oxidoreductases
         1.3 Acting on the CH-CH group of donors
             1.3.5 With a quinone or related compound as acceptor
                1.3.5.5 15-cis-phytoene desaturase

Engineering

Engineering on EC 1.3.5.5 - 15-cis-phytoene desaturase

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PROTEIN VARIANTS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
L504R
-
the modified phytoene desaturase is still active in conversion of phytoene to zeta-carotene and exhibits 43fold-higher resistance to the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. The norflurazon-resistant phytoene desaturase gene is used for successful nuclear transformation and genetic engineering of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway for accelerated astaxanthin biosynthesis
R304X
-
substitution of arginine304 present in the wild-type Hydrilla verticillata phytoene desaturase with all 19 other natural amino acids. In vitro the threonine (Thr), cysteine (Cys), alanine (Ala) and glutamine (Gln) mutations impart the highest resistance to fluridone. The three natural mutations [Cys, serine (Ser), histidine (His)] and the wild-type phytoene desaturase protein are tested in vitro against seven inhibitors of phytoene desaturase representing several classes of herbicides. These mutations confer cross-resistance to norflurazon and overall negative cross-resistance to beflubutamid, picolinafen and diflufenican. The Thr304 Hydrilla pds mutant is an excellent marker for the selection of transgenic plants. Seedlings harbouring Thr304 pds have a maximum resistance to sensitivity (R/S) ratio of 57 and 14 times higher than that of the wild-type for treatments with norflurazon and fluridone, respectively. These plants exhibit normal growth and development, even after long-term exposure to herbicide. As Thr304 pds is of plant origin, it could become more acceptable than other selectable markers for use in genetically modified food