Information on EC 2.7.4.1 - polyphosphate kinase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.7.4.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
polyphosphate kinase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP + (phosphate)n = ADP + (phosphate)n+1
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
phospho group transfer
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
non-pathway related
-
-
Oxidative phosphorylation
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
ATP:polyphosphate phosphotransferase
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9026-44-2
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Achromobacter butyri
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ADP1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chlamydomonas sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MH20-22B; wild-type strain ATCC 13032 is auxotrophic for biotin, genes NCgl0880 and NCgl2620 encoding class II isozymes PPK2A and PPK2B, no class I polyphosphate kinase, PPK1, encoded by ppk1, in this bacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ppk
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Glomus sp.
strain HR1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain HR1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cyanobacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MC2 155
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain mc2155
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain mc_2 155, MSMEG2390, gene ppk1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
T3 progeny of ppk-transgenic tabacum, engineered to express bacterial PPK1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Q01H21
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 8830
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a root colonizing bacterium, strain O6, gene ppk
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Pf0-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Pf0-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodocyclus-like beta-Proteobacteria enriched in activating sludge carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; strain DSM 639
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
-
cell growth, hydrogen productivity and cellular metabolism of Enterobacter aerogenes IAM1183 are affected by the external addition of diphosphate and the overexpression of the enzyme at different initial glucose concentrations
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP + (phosphate)20
ATP + (phosphate)19
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ADP + (phosphate)45
ATP + (phosphate)44
show the reaction diagram
ADP + (phosphate)65
ATP + (phosphate)64
show the reaction diagram
ADP + (phosphate)n
ATP + (phosphate)n-1
show the reaction diagram
ADP + (phosphate)n+1
ATP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
ATP + (phosphate)45
ADP + (phosphate)46
show the reaction diagram
ATP + (phosphate)65
ADP + (phosphate)66
show the reaction diagram
ATP + (phosphate)n
ADP + (phosphate)n+1
show the reaction diagram
ATP + ATP
ADP + (phosphate)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
polyP not required as primer
-
-
r
CDP + (phosphate)n+1
CTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
dADP + (phosphate)20
dATP + (phosphate)19
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
dADP + (phosphate)n+1
dATP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
dCDP + (phosphate)n+1
dCTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
dGDP + (phosphate)n+1
dGTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GDP + (phosphate)20
GTP + (phosphate)19
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform PPK1 affinity for the ADP as a substrate is about 70fold high as opposed to GDP
-
-
r
GDP + (phosphate)n+1
GTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
GDP + (phosphate)n+2
guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
GTP + (phosphate)65
GDP + (phosphate)66
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GTP + (phosphate)n
GDP + (phosphate)n+1
show the reaction diagram
ITP + (phosphate)n
IDP + (phosphate)n+1
show the reaction diagram
TDP + (phosphate)n+1
TTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
UDP + (phosphate)20
UTP + (phosphate)19
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
UDP + (phosphate)n+1
UTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP + (phosphate)n+1
ATP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
ATP + (phosphate)n
ADP + (phosphate)n+1
show the reaction diagram
CDP + (phosphate)n+1
CTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
dADP + (phosphate)n+1
dATP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
dCDP + (phosphate)n+1
dCTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
dGDP + (phosphate)n+1
dGTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GDP + (phosphate)n+1
GTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
TDP + (phosphate)n+1
TTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
UDP + (phosphate)n+1
UTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Co2+
-
1.5-2.5fold lower activation than with Mg2+, inhibitory with Mg2+ as activator
Zn2+
-
activation, 0.4 mM, 10% as effective as Mg2+
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(NH4)2SO4
ammonium hydrochloride
-
50% inhibition at 200 mM
Ca2+
-
1 mM, 10% inhibition
Co2+
-
1 mM, 40% inhibition
Cu2+
-
0.1 mM, 92% inhibition, 1 mM, complete inhibition
diphosphate
EDTA
-
10 mM, complete inhibition
Guanidine HCl
-
5 mM, 50% inhibition of polyphosphate synthesis
histone
-
reverse reaction, strong, activates forward reaction in the presence of phosphate
hydrolyzed glycogen
-
complete inhibition
-
MnATP2-
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at high concentrations, above 0.6 mM, activating below
NH4Cl
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200 mM, approx. 50% inhibition of glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase
phalloidin
a heptapeptide toxin from the mushroom Amanita phalloides, which binds tightly and specifically to polymerized actin, inhibits DdPPK2 and DdPPK1, the latter by 80% at 10 nM, the molar ratio of phalloidin to DdPPK1 of 10:15 results in complete inhibition of DdPPK1 activity
phosphate
Polyphosphate
Sodium fluoride
-
slight inhibition
vanadate
Glomus sp.
-
-
Zn2+
-
0.1 mM, 67% inhibition, 1 mM, complete inhibition
additional information
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(NH4)2SO4
actin
Dictyostelium discoideum also has an actin-related poly P synthesizing complex, DdPPK2, that is KCl dependent
basic protein
-
bovine serum albumin
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casein
diphosphate
-
10 mM, 100% activation of guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate synthesis
Guanidine HCl
-
5 mM, 20% activation of guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate synthesis
histone
phosphate
Polyamine
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activation, Arthrobacter atrocyaneus
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Polyphosphate
activation of polyphosphate kinase 2
protamine
putrescine
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-
spermidine
-
-
Tetrapolyphosphate
-
activation, removes lag-phase in synthesis at low ATP-levels, not phosphate, diphosphate or tripolyphosphate
additional information
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.005 - 0.006
(phosphate)45
-
0.0054 - 0.0063
(phosphate)65
-
15
(Phosphate)n
-
-
0.072 - 8
ADP
0.075 - 13
ATP
0.16 - 11.3
GDP
0.14 - 0.66
GTP
1
ITP
-
; pH 7.2, 30C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
0.53
MnATP2-
-
pH 7.0, 30C
1.67
phosphate
-
pH 7.0, 30C
0.035 - 15
Polyphosphate
additional information
additional information
-
exponential kinetics
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.02 - 50
(phosphate)45
-
53
(phosphate)65
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
-
polyphosphate utilization reaction, in 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.5), 30 mM MgCl2, at 25C
-
10.5 - 994
ADP
0.05 - 74
ATP
0.167
CDP
Escherichia coli
-
pH 7.2, 37C
0.0883 - 645
GDP
0.08 - 34
GTP
43
ITP
Corynebacterium glutamicum
-
pH 7.2, 30C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
47
phosphate
Neisseria meningitidis
-
-
1.04 - 77
Polyphosphate
0.117
UDP
Escherichia coli
-
pH 7.2, 37C
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4 - 8300
(phosphate)45
5045
3.704 - 8400
(phosphate)65
4176
25.5 - 5743
ADP
13
0.15 - 34.7
ATP
4
57
GDP
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
-
isoform PPK1, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
53
0.121
GTP
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
-
50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.5), 1 mM MnCl2, at 25C
37
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.09
ADP
-
pH 7.2, 37C
7.9
AMP
-
no inhibition by CMP and UMP; pH 7.2, 30C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
0.0007 - 3.9
GMP
6.6
IMP
-
; pH 7.2, 30C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
0.0012 - 0.0076
polyphosphate 65
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0
of the purified protein
0.0055
polyphosphate kinase 2
0.034
recombinant polyphosphate kinase
0.048
purified enzyme
0.13
-
polyphosphate kinase activity in crude extracts measured with a modified toluidine blue assay
0.317
purified recombinant His-tagged Ppk
0.7
-
synthesis of ATP, reversed reaction
4.2
-
of the recombinant protein
14
-
purified recombinant wild-type enzyme, polyphosphate synthesis with GTP
18
-
purified recombinant wild-type enzyme, polyphosphate synthesis with ITP
31
-
purified recombinant wild-type enzyme, polyphosphate synthesis with ATP
32
-
purified recombinant wild-type enzyme, polyphosphate dephosphorylation
additional information
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5 - 9
recombinant polyphosphate kinase
5 - 8
-
approx. half-maximal activity at pH 5.0 and pH 8.0
5.5 - 8
-
approx. 10% of maximal activity at pH 5.5 and pH 8.0 respectively
5.5 - 8.5
-
approx. 19% of maximal activity at pH 5.5 and pH 8.5
5.8 - 7
-
approx. half-maximal activity at pH 5.8, approx. 85% of maximal activity at pH 7.0
6.2 - 8.2
-
approx. 45% of maximal activity at pH 6.2, approx. 75% of maximal activity at pH 8.2
6.8 - 8.8
-
approx. half-maximal activity at pH 6.8 and pH 8.8
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.6 - 6.7
-
several spots, isoelectric focusing
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information