Information on EC 2.7.4.1 - polyphosphate kinase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.7.4.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
polyphosphate kinase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP + (phosphate)n = ADP + (phosphate)n+1
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
phospho group transfer
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Oxidative phosphorylation
-
-
non-pathway related
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
ATP:polyphosphate phosphotransferase
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9026-44-2
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Achromobacter butyri
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ADP1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chlamydomonas sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MH20-22B; wild-type strain ATCC 13032 is auxotrophic for biotin, genes NCgl0880 and NCgl2620 encoding class II isozymes PPK2A and PPK2B, no class I polyphosphate kinase, PPK1, encoded by ppk1, in this bacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ppk
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
an extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strain ExPEC, gene ppk
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain HR1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain HR1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
stibogluconate-resistant and paromomycin-resistant clone AG83
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
stibogluconate-resistant and paromomycin-resistant clone AG83
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cyanobacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
formerly Bacillus sphaericus , gene ppk
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MC2 155
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain mc2155
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain mc_2 155, MSMEG2390, gene ppk1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
T3 progeny of ppk-transgenic tabacum, engineered to express bacterial PPK1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Q01H21
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ppk
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene ppk
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 8830
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a root colonizing bacterium, strain O6, gene ppk
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Pf0-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Pf0-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodocyclus-like beta-Proteobacteria enriched in activating sludge carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; strain DSM 639
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
a lid-loop and the conserved Walker A and B motifs are important for substrate binding and enyzme catalysis
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP + (phosphate)20
ATP + (phosphate)19
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ADP + (phosphate)45
ATP + (phosphate)44
show the reaction diagram
ADP + (phosphate)65
ATP + (phosphate)64
show the reaction diagram
ADP + (phosphate)n
ATP + (phosphate)n-1
show the reaction diagram
ADP + (phosphate)n+1
ATP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
ATP + (phosphate)45
ADP + (phosphate)46
show the reaction diagram
ATP + (phosphate)65
ADP + (phosphate)66
show the reaction diagram
ATP + (phosphate)n
ADP + (phosphate)n+1
show the reaction diagram
ATP + (phosphate)n+1
ADP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP + ATP
ADP + (phosphate)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
polyP not required as primer
-
-
r
CDP + (phosphate)n
CTP + (phosphate)n-1
show the reaction diagram
CDP + (phosphate)n+1
CTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
dADP + (phosphate)20
dATP + (phosphate)19
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
dADP + (phosphate)n+1
dATP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
dCDP + (phosphate)n+1
dCTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
dGDP + (phosphate)n+1
dGTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GDP + (phosphate)20
GTP + (phosphate)19
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform PPK1 affinity for the ADP as a substrate is about 70fold high as opposed to GDP
-
-
r
GDP + (phosphate)n
GTP + (phosphate)n-1
show the reaction diagram
GDP + (phosphate)n+1
GTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
GDP + (phosphate)n+2
guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
GTP + (phosphate)65
GDP + (phosphate)66
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GTP + (phosphate)n
GDP + (phosphate)n+1
show the reaction diagram
GTP + (phosphate)n+1
GDP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ITP + (phosphate)n
IDP + (phosphate)n+1
show the reaction diagram
TDP + (phosphate)n+1
TTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
UDP + (phosphate)20
UTP + (phosphate)19
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
UDP + (phosphate)n
UTP + (phosphate)n-1
show the reaction diagram
UDP + (phosphate)n+1
UTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP + (phosphate)n
ATP + (phosphate)n-1
show the reaction diagram
ADP + (phosphate)n+1
ATP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
ATP + (phosphate)n
ADP + (phosphate)n+1
show the reaction diagram
CDP + (phosphate)n
CTP + (phosphate)n-1
show the reaction diagram
CDP + (phosphate)n+1
CTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
dADP + (phosphate)n+1
dATP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
dCDP + (phosphate)n+1
dCTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
dGDP + (phosphate)n+1
dGTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GDP + (phosphate)n
GTP + (phosphate)n-1
show the reaction diagram
GDP + (phosphate)n+1
GTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
TDP + (phosphate)n+1
TTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
UDP + (phosphate)n
UTP + (phosphate)n-1
show the reaction diagram
UDP + (phosphate)n+1
UTP + (phosphate)n
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
activates; activates; activates, best cation
Co2+
-
1.5-2.5fold lower activation than with Mg2+, inhibitory with Mg2+ as activator
Ni2+
activates; activates; activates
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(NH4)2SO4
ammonium hydrochloride
-
50% inhibition at 200 mM
Ca2+
-
1 mM, 10% inhibition
Cu2+
-
0.1 mM, 92% inhibition, 1 mM, complete inhibition
diphosphate
ellagic acid
ellagic acid derivatives from Terminalia chebula increase the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to stress by inhibiting polyphosphate kinase, oveview. Ellagic acid derivatives completely inhibit PPK1 activity at 0.5 mg/ml. Ellagic acid derivatives-treated Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells show marked reduction in polyphosphate granules in cytosol. Ellagic acid derivatives from Terminalia chebula inhibit PPK1 expression and its activity and increase the sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to desiccation and oxidative stress while reducing tolerance to piperacillin
Guanidine HCl
-
5 mM, 50% inhibition of polyphosphate synthesis
histone
-
reverse reaction, strong, activates forward reaction in the presence of phosphate
hydrolyzed glycogen
-
complete inhibition
-
MnATP2-
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at high concentrations, above 0.6 mM, activating below
NH4Cl
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200 mM, approx. 50% inhibition of glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase
phalloidin
a heptapeptide toxin from the mushroom Amanita phalloides, which binds tightly and specifically to polymerized actin, inhibits DdPPK2 and DdPPK1, the latter by 80% at 10 nM, the molar ratio of phalloidin to DdPPK1 of 10:15 results in complete inhibition of DdPPK1 activity
phosphate
Polyphosphate
Sodium fluoride
-
slight inhibition
vanadate
-
-
Zn2+
-
0.1 mM, 67% inhibition, 1 mM, complete inhibition
additional information
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(NH4)2SO4
actin
Dictyostelium discoideum also has an actin-related poly P synthesizing complex, DdPPK2, that is KCl dependent
basic protein
-
bovine serum albumin
-
casein
diphosphate
-
10 mM, 100% activation of guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate synthesis
Guanidine HCl
-
5 mM, 20% activation of guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate synthesis
histone
phosphate
Polyamine
-
activation, Arthrobacter atrocyaneus
-
Polyphosphate
activation of polyphosphate kinase 2
protamine
putrescine
-
-
spermidine
-
-
Tetrapolyphosphate
-
activation, removes lag-phase in synthesis at low ATP-levels, not phosphate, diphosphate or tripolyphosphate
additional information
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.005 - 0.006
(phosphate)45
-
0.0054 - 0.0063
(phosphate)65
-
15
(Phosphate)n
-
-
0.072 - 8
ADP
0.075 - 13
ATP
0.16 - 11.3
GDP
0.14 - 0.692
GTP
1
ITP
-
; pH 7.2, 30C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
0.53
MnATP2-
-
pH 7.0, 30C
1.67
phosphate
-
pH 7.0, 30C
0.035 - 15
Polyphosphate
3.6
UDP
pH 8.0, 30C, recombinant isozyme PPK2-3
additional information
additional information
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.02 - 50
(phosphate)45
-
0.02 - 53
(phosphate)65
-
3.17 - 994
ADP
0.05 - 74
ATP
0.167
CDP
Escherichia coli
-
pH 7.2, 37C
0.0883 - 645
GDP
0.08 - 34
GTP
43
ITP
Corynebacterium glutamicum
-
pH 7.2, 30C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
47
phosphate
Neisseria meningitidis
-
-
1.04 - 77
Polyphosphate
0.117 - 4.9
UDP
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4 - 8300
(phosphate)45
5045
3.704 - 8400
(phosphate)65
4176
2.08 - 5743
ADP
13
0.15 - 34.7
ATP
4
3.48 - 57
GDP
53
0.121 - 4.002
GTP
37
1.37
UDP
Ruegeria pomeroyi
Q5LSN8, Q5LU04, Q5LX16
pH 8.0, 30C, recombinant isozyme PPK2-3
26
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.09
ADP
-
pH 7.2, 37C
7.9
AMP
-
no inhibition by CMP and UMP; pH 7.2, 30C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
0.0007 - 3.9
GMP
6.6
IMP
-
; pH 7.2, 30C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
0.0012 - 0.0076
polyphosphate 65
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0
of the purified protein
0.00067
-
GTP formation from GDP, pH 7.0, 37C, wild-type clone AG83
0.0012
-
GTP formation from GDP, pH 7.0, 37C, SSG-resistant clone AG83
0.00208
-
GTP formation from GDP, pH 7.0, 37C, PMM-resistant clone AG83
0.0055
polyphosphate kinase 2
0.0335
-
ATP formation from ADP, pH 7.0, 37C, PMM-resistant clone AG83
0.034
recombinant polyphosphate kinase
0.0369
-
ATP formation from ADP, pH 7.0, 37C, SSG-resistant clone AG83
0.0442
-
ATP formation from ADP, pH 7.0, 37C, wild-type clone AG83
0.048
purified enzyme
0.13
-
polyphosphate kinase activity in crude extracts measured with a modified toluidine blue assay
0.317
purified recombinant His-tagged Ppk
0.7
-
synthesis of ATP, reversed reaction
4.2
-
of the recombinant protein