Information on EC 2.5.1.79 - thermospermine synthase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.5.1.79
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
thermospermine synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine + spermidine = S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + thermospermine + H+
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine:spermidine 3-aminopropyltransferase (thermospermine synthesizing)
This enzyme is crucial for the proper functioning of xylem vessel elements in the vascular tissues of plants [3].
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
gene AtACL5
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene GhACL5
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene GhACL5
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene POPACAULIS5 or PttACL5
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine + spermidine
S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + thermospermine + H+
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-L-methioninamine + spermidine
5'-methylthioadenosine + thermospermine
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine + spermidine
S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + thermospermine + H+
show the reaction diagram
S-adenosyl-L-methioninamine + spermidine
5'-methylthioadenosine + thermospermine
show the reaction diagram
-
SAC51 is one of the key transcription factors controlling stem elongation. Plants acquire the ability to synthesize thermospermine at an early stage of evolution by horizontal gene transfer from a prokaryote
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-
?
additional information
?
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.091
S-adenosyl-L-methioninamine
-
-
0.104
spermidine
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.313
-
pH 9.4, 55°C
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
stems and flowers contain two- to threefold more thermospermine compared to whole seedlings and mature leaves
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
50000
-
4 * 48000, calculated, x * 50000, SDS-PAGE
196000
-
native PAGE
200000
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
tetramer
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
expression with His6-tag
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gene AtACL5, phylogenetic analysis, sequence comparisons
gene GhACL5, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, sequence comparisons, constitutive expression of the cotton ACL5 gene (GhACL5) in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia-0, via Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 transfection using the CaMV 35S promoter, significantly increases plant height and elevates the level of thermospermidine, quantitative real-time RT-PCR expression analysis of transgenic GhACL5 and endogenous AtACL5 transcripts, transcript levels of endogenous AtACL5 are reduced in plants that ectopically express gene GhACL5, seedling phenotypes, overview
gene POPACAULIS5 or PttACL5, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, quantitative real-time RT-PCR expression analysis, functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
exogenous supply of auxin results in a strong increase in POPACAULIS5 transcript levels after 4 h in transgenic overexpressing lines but not in the wild-type. Class III HD-Zip PttHB8 over-expression stimulates POPACAULIS5 expression, mechanism, overview. Expression of PttHB8 is rapidly induced by exogenous auxin and it is therefore possible that the suppression of PttHB8 expression by POPACAULIS5 overexpression is mediated through Indole-3-acetic acid
jasmonic acid methyl ester and ethephon affect the enzyme expression
salicylic acid, jasmonic acid methyl ester, and ethephon induce the enzyme expression
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
E156D
-
besides main product thermospermine, mutant is able to synthesize some spermine
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
analysis
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simple method to separate spermine and thermospermine in extracts from plant tissues of less than 500 mg. Polyamines extracted from plant tissues are benzoylated, and the derivatives are completely resolved by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 reverse-phase column. With this method, the thermospermine contents in various tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana have been monitored. Stems and flowers contain two- to three-fold more thermospermine compared to whole seedlings and mature leaves