Information on EC 2.5.1.79 - thermospermine synthase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.5.1.79
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
thermospermine synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine + spermidine = S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + thermospermine + H+
show the reaction diagram
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine:spermidine 3-aminopropyltransferase (thermospermine synthesizing)
This enzyme is crucial for the proper functioning of xylem vessel elements in the vascular tissues of plants [3].
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
physiological function
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thermospermine-deficient mutant acl5 shows severe dwarfism and excessive xylem differentiation. Some auxin analogs remarkably enhance xylem vessel differentiation in the acl5 mutant but not in the wild type. The xylem-inducing effect of auxin analogs is clearly suppressed by thermospermine. Auxin analogs promote protoxylem differentiation in roots and cotyledons in the acl5 mutant. The opposite action between thermospermine and auxin in xylem differentiation may be common in different organs and thermospermine might be required for the suppression of protoxylem differentiation
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
S-adenosyl-L-methioninamine + spermidine
5'-methylthioadenosine + thermospermine
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
S-adenosyl-L-methioninamine + spermidine
5'-methylthioadenosine + thermospermine
show the reaction diagram
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SAC51 is one of the key transcription factors controlling stem elongation. Plants acquire the ability to synthesize thermospermine at an early stage of evolution by horizontal gene transfer from a prokaryote
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?
additional information
?
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.091
S-adenosyl-L-methioninamine
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0.104
spermidine
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SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.313
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pH 9.4, 55°C
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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stems and flowers contain two- to threefold more thermospermine compared to whole seedlings and mature leaves
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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stems and flowers contain two- to threefold more thermospermine compared to whole seedlings and mature leaves
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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stems and flowers contain two- to threefold more thermospermine compared to whole seedlings and mature leaves
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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in the hypocotyl as well as in the inflorescence stem, ACL5 is expressed not just broadly with respect to vasculature, but specifically in the xylem vessel elements at a strictly defined developmental stage, suggesting direct involvement of ACL5 in xylem vessel differentiation. The acl5 mutant displays severe overall inhibition of the secondary growth of the vascular tissues, dramatic alteration in the morphology of the vessel elements and complete lack of xylem fibers
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
196000
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native PAGE
200000
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gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
tetramer
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
expression with His6-tag
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
E156D
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besides main product thermospermine, mutant is able to synthesize some spermine
additional information
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contrary to wild-type, seedlings of acl5-1 loss-of-function mutant do not contain thermospermine. Daily application of thermospermine onto the shoot apex partially rescues the dwarf phenotype of the mutant, while application of spermine has no effect. The acl5-1 transcript level in acl5-1 seedlings, which is much higher than the ACL5 transcript level in wild-type seedlings, is reduced by exogenous thermospermine
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
analysis
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simple method to separate spermine and thermospermine in extracts from plant tissues of less than 500 mg. Polyamines extracted from plant tissues are benzoylated, and the derivatives are completely resolved by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 reverse-phase column. With this method, the thermospermine contents in various tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana have been monitored. Stems and flowers contain two- to three-fold more thermospermine compared to whole seedlings and mature leaves