Information on EC 2.4.1.234 - kaempferol 3-O-galactosyltransferase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.4.1.234
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
kaempferol 3-O-galactosyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + kaempferol = UDP + kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
transfer of glycosyl group
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Flavone and flavonol biosynthesis
-
-
kaempferol diglycoside biosynthesis (pollen-specific)
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quercetin diglycoside biosynthesis (pollen-specific)
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-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-galactose:kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-galactosyltransferase
Acts on the endogenous flavonols kaempferol and quercetin, to a lesser extent on myricetin and fisetin, and weakly on galangin and isorhamnetin. The reaction can occur equally well in both directions.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
148619-61-8
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
F3GalTase activity is specific to the Solanaceae
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Xanthi, F3GalTase activity is specific to the Solanaceae
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CMF
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
F3GalTase activity is specific to the Solanaceae
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
F3GalTase activity is specific to the Solanaceae
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NIAS no. R-30
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-D-galactose + isorhamnetin
UDP + isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
-
kaempferol, isorhamnetin and quercetin are the best substrates, F3GaT transfers a galactosyl residue exclusively to the 3-hydroxyl group of the substrate, 106% of the activity with kaempferol as substrate
-
-
?
UDP-D-galactose + kaempferol
UDP + kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
-
kaempferol, isorhamnetin and quercetin are the best substrates, F3GaT transfers a galactosyl residue exclusively to the 3-hydroxyl group of the substrate
trifolin
-
?
UDP-D-galactose + kaempferol 4'-monomethylether
UDP + kaempferol 4'-monomethylether 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
-
79% of the activity with kaempferol as substrate
-
-
?
UDP-D-galactose + myricetin
UDP + myricetin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
-
28% of the activity with kaempferol as substrate
-
-
?
UDP-D-galactose + quercetin
UDP + quercetin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
UDP-D-galactose + quercetin 7-O-glucoside
UDP + quercetin 7-O-glucoside-3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
-
33% of the activity with kaempferol as substrate
-
-
?
UDP-D-galactose + rhamnetin
UDP + rhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
-
75% of the activity with kaempferol as substrate
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxychromen-4-one
UDP + 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxychromen-4-one galactoside
show the reaction diagram
-
20-30% of the activity with kaempferol as substrate
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + fisetin
UDP + fisetin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
23.3% of the activity with kaempferol as substrate
-
-
r
UDP-galactose + flavonol
UDP + flavonol 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + galangin
UDP + galangin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
15.1% of the activity with kaempferol as substrate
-
-
r
UDP-galactose + isorhamnetin
UDP + isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
13% of the activity with kaempferol as substrate
-
-
r
UDP-galactose + kaempferide
UDP + kaempferide 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
UDP-galactose + kaempferol
UDP + kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + morin
UDP + morin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
UDP-galactose + myricetin
UDP + myricetin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
23.4% of the activity with kaempferol as substrate
-
-
r
UDP-galactose + quercetin
UDP + quercetin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + rhamnetin
UDP + rhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
6.9% of the activity with kaempferol as substrate
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-
r
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-D-galactose + quercetin
UDP + quercetin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
-
role in pollen germination
quercetin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside induces pollen germination via the reverse activity
-
r
UDP-galactose + flavonol
UDP + flavonol 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + kaempferol
UDP + kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + quercetin
UDP + quercetin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
show the reaction diagram
-
role in pollen germination, F3GalTase is a gametophyte-specific enzyme, that controls the accumulation of glycosylated flavonols in pollen
endogenous product in pollen, which stimulates pollen germination
-
r
additional information
?
-
Q9SBQ8
F3GalTase glycosylates the flavonols required for pollen germination, F3galtase gene regulation
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-
-
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxychromen-4-one
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irreversible inhibitor, the effects of the inhibitor are mediated by UV-A light treatment, binding characteristics, kaempferol protects against inhibition
CaCl2
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1 mM: 29% inhibition, 10 mM: 53% inhibition
CoCl2
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1 mM, 62% inhibition
CuCl2
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1 mM, 100% inhibition
iodoacetate
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1 mM, 47% inhibition
MgCl2
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1 mM: 31% inhibition, 10 mM: 37% inhibition
MnCl2
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1 mM: 62% inhibition, 10 mM: 43% inhibition
N-ethylmaleimide
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1 mM, 89% inhibition, 14 mM 2-mercaptoethanol completely restores activity
p-chloromercuribenzoate
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1 mM, 100% inhibition, 14 mM 2-mercaptoethanol completely restores activity
Phenylmercuriacetate
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1 mM, 98% inhibition
ZnCl2
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1 mM, 97% inhibition
additional information
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
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14 mM, activates
dithioerythritol
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10 mM, activates
EDTA
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1-10 mM, activates
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0004 - 0.011
kaempferol
0.039
kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-galactoside
-
reverse reaction
0.00847
kaempferol 3-O-galactoside
pH 6, 43°C, reverse reaction
0.00096
quercetin
pH 7.5, 43°C, forward reaction
0.00265
quercetin 3-O-galactoside
pH 6, 43°C, reverse reaction
0.013 - 0.102
UDP
0.125
UDP-D-galactose
-
pH 8, 30°C, cosubstrate kaempferol
0.318 - 0.426
UDP-galactose
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
61.1
kaempferol
Petunia x hybrida
Q9SBQ8
pH 7.5, 43°C, forward reaction
59.9
kaempferol 3-O-galactoside
Petunia x hybrida
Q9SBQ8
pH 6, 43°C, reverse reaction
59.8
quercetin
Petunia x hybrida
Q9SBQ8
pH 7.5, 43°C, forward reaction
82.3
quercetin 3-O-galactoside
Petunia x hybrida
Q9SBQ8
pH 6, 43°C, reverse reaction
50.9 - 89.6
UDP
57.4 - 61.2
UDP-galactose
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.335
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pH 8, 30°C
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5
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reverse reaction
7.5
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forward reaction
7.5 - 8
forward reaction
7.5
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in histidine-HCl buffer
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5 - 7.5
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the activity of the forward reaction is 1.6fold higher at pH 7.5 than at 5.5, the activity of the reverse reaction is 8fold higher at pH 5.5 than at 7.5
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
43
assay at, preincubation for 15 min at 43°C results in 5% loss of activity compared with the activity without preincubation
50
maximum activity, but preincubation for 15 min at 50°C results in 26% loss of activity compared with the activity without preincubation
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6
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chromatofocusing
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
stage 6-9, corolla
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
8 days old
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
-
localization of F3GalTase in pollen
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
43000
-
gel filtration
45000
1 * 45000, native and recombinant F3GalTase, SDS-PAGE, x * 48900, sequence calculation
48900
1 * 45000, native and recombinant F3GalTase, SDS-PAGE, x * 48900, sequence calculation
50000
gel filtration, native PAGE
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
monomer
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
proteolytic modification
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
43
preincubation for 15 min at 43°C results in 5% loss of activity compared with the activity without preincubation
50
maximum activity, but preincubation for 15 min at 50°C results in 26% loss of activity compared with the activity without preincubation
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
14 mM 2-mercaptoethanol stabilizes
-
ORGANIC SOLVENT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Triton X-100
1%, no reduction of activity during extraction
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20°C, 20 mM imidazole-HCl, pH 8, 10% glycerol, one week, 100% loss of activity
-
-20°C, 20 mM imidazole-HCl, pH 8, 14 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 10% glycerol, 2 days or one week, 35-36% loss of activity
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
404.3fold
-
native F3GalTase
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
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F3GalTase cDNA from V26 plants, expression in Escherichia coli TOP10, sequencing, F3galtase gene structure, genomic organization
F3galtase gene structure
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from pollen, full-length cDNA, expression in Escherichia coli, sequencing