Information on EC 2.3.3.8 - ATP citrate synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.3.3.8
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
ATP citrate synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ADP + phosphate + acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate = ATP + citrate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
elimination
-
-
of an oxo-acid, C-C bond cleavage
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
acetyl-CoA biosynthesis III (from citrate)
-
-
Biosynthesis of antibiotics
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
Carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes
-
-
Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
-
-
reductive TCA cycle I
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
acetyl-CoA:oxaloacetate C-acetyltransferase [(pro-S)-carboxymethyl-forming, ADP-phosphorylating]
The enzyme can be dissociated into components, two of which are identical with EC 4.1.3.34 (citryl-CoA lyase) and EC 6.2.1.18 (citrate---CoA ligase).
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9027-95-6
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subunits; synonym Aspergillus nidulans
Q5BAJ4 and Q5BAJ5
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain R21
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Caminibacter sp.
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cunninghamella sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
large subunit of enzyme; expression on Escherichia coli
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
anamorph Fusarium graminearum
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
anamorph Fusarium graminearum
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TK-6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TK-6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CBS 1809
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Nautilia sp.
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Penicillium spiculisporum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggest that Epsilonproteobacteria are the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella are prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP + phosphate + acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate
ATP + citrate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
ATP + citrate + CoA
acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate + ADP + phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + citrate + CoA
ADP + phosphate + acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate
show the reaction diagram
citrate + CoA + ATP
acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate + ADP + phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dATP + citrate + CoA
dADP + phosphate + acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate
show the reaction diagram
GTP + citrate + CoA
GDP + phosphate + acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate
show the reaction diagram
N6-etheno-adenosine triphosphate + citrate + CoA
N6-etheno-adenosine diphosphate + phosphate + acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate
show the reaction diagram
Penicillium spiculisporum
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP + phosphate + acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate
ATP + citrate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
ATP + citrate + CoA
acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate + ADP + phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ATP + citrate + CoA
ADP + phosphate + acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is a nonredundant source of cytosolic acetyl-CoA
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(+)-2,2-difluorocitrate
(-)-2,2-difluorocitrate
(-)-Hydroxycitrate
(1S,2S)-1,2-dihydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
-
50% inhibition at 0.00015 mM
(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl 2-[[(3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]amino]benzoate
-
50% inhibition at 0.00034 mM
(2R)-2-[(2S)-8-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyoctyl]-2-hydroxysuccinic acid
-
50% inhibition at 0.0021 mM
(4S)-hydroxycitrate
-
-
2-hydroxy-2-[(S-methylsulfonimidoyl)methyl]butanedioic acid
-
weak, reversible
3,3,14,14-tetramethylhexadecanedioic acid
-
i.e. Medica-16
3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxy-N-(4-methoxybiphenyl-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide
3,5-dichloro-N-(2,4,6-triphenyl-phenyl)-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonamide
-
50% inhibition at 0.00019 mM
3,5-dichloro-N-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonamide
-
50% inhibition at 0.0011 mM
5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)cyclohexyl 2-[[(3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]amino]benzoate
-
50% inhibition at 0.00037 mM
BMS-303141
-
-
D-fructose 2,6-diphosphate
-
18% inhibition
D-glucose 6-phosphate
-
-
diethyldicarbonate
-
the addition of 0.5 mM ATP in the preincubation reaction mixture provided complete protection of enzyme activity from inactivation by diethyldicarbonate
DL-isocitrate
-
-
Fluorocitrate
-
-
GSSG
-
inactivation involves formation of a protein-protein disulfide rather than a protein-glutathione complex
Hydroxycitrate
L-Leu
-
2 mM, 20% inhibition
lauroyl-CoA
malonyl-CoA
-
0.4 mM, 70% inhibition
myristoyl-CoA
oleoyl-CoA
oxaloacetate
palmitoyl-CoA
radicicol
radicicol biotinylated at the C-17 position
-
no inhibition with the derivative biotinylated at the C-18 position
radiciol
-
-
SB-201076
-
-
SB-204990
stearoyl-CoA
Tartrate
-
-
tricarballylate
-
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
acetate
-
activates
antizyme
-
antizyme 1 and 2 activate the enzyme through protein-protein interaction
-
Cl-
-
activates
D-fructose 1,6-diphosphate
-
activates
D-fructose 2,6-diphosphate
-
activates
D-fructose 6-phosphate
-
potent activator of the unphosphorylated recombinant enzyme, half-maximal activation at 0.16 mM
D-glucose 1-phosphate
-
activates
D-glucose 6-phosphate
-
activates
D-ribulose 5-phosphate
-
activates
D-xylulose 5-phosphate
-
activates
HCO3-
-
activates
insulin growth factor 1
-
induces enzyme activation in an AKT-dependent fashion
-
phosphoenolpyruvate
-
activates
additional information
-
6-8 very reactive sulfhydryl groups appear to be essential for activity
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0098
acetyl-CoA
-
-
0.047 - 41
ATP
0.07 - 6.25
citrate
0.001 - 2.59
CoA
0.18
N6-etheno-adenosine triphosphate
Penicillium spiculisporum
-
-
0.177
oxaloacetate
-
-
1.49
phosphate
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
19
ATP
Homo sapiens
-
wild type enzyme, average value, in 50 mM Tris, 10 mM MgCl2, and 2 mM dithiothreitol (pH 8.0), at 22C
4
230
citrate
Homo sapiens
-
wild type enzyme, average value, in 50 mM Tris, 10 mM MgCl2, and 2 mM dithiothreitol (pH 8.0), at 22C
131
240
CoA
Homo sapiens
-
wild type enzyme, average value, in 50 mM Tris, 10 mM MgCl2, and 2 mM dithiothreitol (pH 8.0), at 22C
18
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00005 - 0.00007
(4S)-hydroxycitrate
0.018 - 0.037
ADP
0.00015
Hydroxycitrate
-
-
0.18
oxaloacetate
-
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00094
BMS-303141
Homo sapiens
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.036
crude enzyme, at pH 8.5, temperature not specified in the publication
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
8 - 8.5
maximum activity
8
Penicillium spiculisporum
-
-
8.2 - 8.6
-
-
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6 - 8.5
more than 80% of maximum activity within this range
6.9 - 8.3
-
pH 6.9: about 45% of maximal activity, pH 8.3: about 50% of maximal activity
7 - 8.8
Penicillium spiculisporum
-
about 50% of maximal activity at pH 7.0 and at pH 8.8
7.3 - 9.5
-
about 50% of maximal activity at pH 7.3 and at pH 9.5
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
20 - 57
-
20C: about 45% of maximal activity, pH 57C: about 30% of maximal activity
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
8.4
calculated from amino acid sequence
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
as well as in autotrophically grown cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
as well as in autotrophically grown cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ATP citrate lyase-deficient INS-1 cells, which are unable to convert citrate into cytosolic acetyl-CoA, insulin release by 2-aminobicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid is decreased and adding beta-hydroxybutyrate or alpha-ketoisocaproate, which increases mitochondrial acetoacetate, normalizes 2-aminobicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid-induced insulin release
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
the enzyme tends to associate with the mitochondria
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
12000
-
4 * 12000, gel filtration in presence of 6 M guanidinium chloride
40000
x * 43675 + y * 65535, calculated, x * 40000 + x * 65000, SDS-PAGE
43000
-
6 * 43000, SDS-PAGE
43675
x * 43675 + y * 65535, calculated, x * 40000 + x * 65000, SDS-PAGE
45000
-
4 * 45000 + 4 * 65000, SDS-PAGE
65535
x * 43675 + y * 65535, calculated, x * 40000 + x * 65000, SDS-PAGE
66000
x * 66000, SDS-PAGE
105000
-
x * 105000, SDS-PAGE
110000
116000
-
4 * 116000, SDS-PAGE
120000
120100
4 * 120100, calculated from amino acid sequence
120608
-
x * 120608, calculated, identified by mass spectrometry
123000
-
x * 123000, SDS-PAGE
125000
135000
-
4 * 135000, SDS-PAGE
200000
Penicillium spiculisporum
-
above, gel filtration
240000
-
sucrose density gradient centrifugation
260000
-
gel filtration
371000
-
equilibrium sedimentation
380000 - 385000
-
equilibrium sedimentation
400000
-
gel filtration
440000
-
equilibrium sedimentation
470000
-
gel filtration
473000
-
equilibrium sedimentation
480000
500000
510000
-
gel filtration
520000
-
gel filtration
532000 - 557000
gel filtration
550000
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
heterohexamer
hexamer
homotetramer
octamer
-
4 * 45000 + 4 * 65000, SDS-PAGE
tetramer
additional information
N-terminal amino acid sequence
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
phosphoprotein
side-chain modification
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
in complex with citrate or tartrate, hanging drop vapor diffusion method, using either 12.5% (w/v) PEG 3350, 100 mM sodium tartrate, 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.0) for the native protein or 10% PEG 3350, 75 mM potassium citrate, 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.0) for the selenomethionyl protein
-
in the presence of tartrate, ATP and magnesium ions
-
tartrate and ADP-Mg2+ bound N-terminal portion of the enzyme containing residues 1-817, hanging drop vapor diffusion method, using 12.5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, 125 mM sodium tartrate, 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.2)
-
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5 - 11
-
stable
488211
7 - 7.2
-
maximal stability
488209
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30
-
4 h, stable
40
-
30 min, protein concentration of 0.25 mg/ml, phosphorylated and dephosphorylated form of enzyme, stable
45
-
10 min, protein concentration of 0.16 mg/ml, phosphorylated and dephosphorylated form of enzyme, 50% loss of activity
65
-
loss of activity after 5 min without addition of citrate, loss of activity after 20 min in presence of citrate
95
-
30 min, more than 90% loss of activity in absence of citrate, less than 10% loss of activity in presence of citrate
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
a peptide factor stabilizes
-
ATP and citrate stabilize
chymotrypsin and pronase treatment inactivates, trypsin does not affect the enzyme
-
citrate and glycerol stabilize
-
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
rapid loss of activity in air at 3C in Tris buffer
-
33352
the enzyme is in equilibrium between an oxidized inactive form and a reduced active form
-
488212
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20C, 1 year, stable
-
-20C, 20% glycerol, stable up to 2 months
-
-20C, pH 8 stable for 4 months
-
-20C, stable
4C, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 1 mM MgCl2, 10 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 83% loss of activity after 48 h. 52% loss of activity in presence of 1 mM ATP. 30% loss of activity in presence of 20 mM citrate, 9% loss of activity in presence of 1 mM ATP and 20 mM citrate
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography (DEAE), gel filtration
-
brain enzyme
-
glutathione Sepharose bead chromatography
-
immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography
-
liver enzyme; partial
-
mammary gland
-
Ni-NTA agarose column chromatography, Q-Sepharose column chromatography and DEAE-Sephacel gel filtration
-
Ni-NTA column chromatography
-
Ni-NTA column chromatography, and gel filtration
partial
partial purification from Chlorobium limicola, complete purification after expression in Escherichia coli
recombinant enzyme
Superose 12 gel filtration
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
a gene encoding a fusion protein of rat liver ATP:citrate lyase with the transit peptide for the small subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase is constructed and introduced into the genome of tobacco
-
expressed in 293-F cells
-
expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana and in laticifer of roots of dandelion
-
expressed in Baculovirus Bac-N-Blue expression system
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha cells
-
expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
expressed in Sf9 cells using a a baculovirus expression system
-
expression in Escherichia coli
expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
myc-tagged version expressed in different cell lines
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
48 h after exhaustion of nitrogen in the culture, the enzyme shows marked decrease (84%) in activity. The enzyme activity decreases in a time period of 20-100 h during lipid accumulation
enzyme activity increases with dissolved oxygen and upon ammonium depletion in an ammonium-limited culture
enzyme mRNA and protein levels markedly (about 2.5fold) and quickly increase in activated macrophages. Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma upregulate enzyme gene expression
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sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 up-regulates the enzyme at mRNA level via Akt signaling
the enzyme activity increases in the first 20 h during lipid accumulation
there are about 3fold increased levels of the enzyme in glioblastoma pseudopodia compared to unmigrated cells
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transcription of genes aclA and aclB is repressed by growth on acetate or ethanol
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
H274A
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mutation abolishes both the catalytic activity and phosphorylation of the enzyme by ATP
H760A
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the turnover number of the mutant is similar to that of wild type in the absence of citrate and CoA, yet significantly less than that of wild type enzyme in the presence of both citrate and CoA
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
analysis
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coupled fluorometric assay for EC 2.3.1.1 based on coupling coenzyme A production to the oxidation of NADH via ATP-citrate lyase and malate dehydrogenase
medicine
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