Information on EC 2.3.1.84 - alcohol O-acetyltransferase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.3.1.84
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
alcohol O-acetyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
acetyl-CoA + a primary alcohol = CoA + an acetyl ester
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Acyl group transfer
esterification
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
geranyl acetate biosynthesis
-
-
volatile esters biosynthesis (during fruit ripening)
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
acetyl-CoA:alcohol O-acetyltransferase
Acts on a range of short-chain aliphatic alcohols, including methanol and ethanol
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
80237-89-4
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
var. motia, PRC1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
banana
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Cucumis melo
var. rochet
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bottom-fermenting lager yeast, alcohol acetyltransferases 1 and 2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
physiological function
-
after 5 days of fermentation, the concentrations of ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate in yellow rice wines fermented with yeasts overexpressing isoform ATF2 increase to 137.79 mg/L (an approximate 4.9fold increase relative to the parent cell), 26.68 mg/L, and 7.60 mg/L, respectively
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1-octanol + acetyl-CoA
acetyl-CoA + 1-octanol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-octen-3-ol + acetyl-CoA
1-octen-3-acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-phenylethanol + acetyl-CoA
2-phenylethyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3-methylthio-1-propanol + acetyl-CoA
3-(methylthio)propyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + (-)-beta-citronellol
CoA + (-)-beta-citronellyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol
CoA + (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + (Z)-9-dodecen-1-ol
CoA + (Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + (Z)-9-hexadecen-1-ol
CoA + (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol
CoA + (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-hexenol
CoA + 2-hexenyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-phenyl ethanol
CoA + 2-phenyl ethyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-phenylethanol
CoA + 2-phenylethyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-phenylethyl alcohol
CoA + 2-phenylethyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
relative activity: 100%
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 3-phenyl-1-propanol
CoA + 3-phenylpropyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + alcohol
CoA + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + benzyl alcohol
CoA + benzyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + butanol
CoA + butyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + cinnamyl alcohol
CoA + cinnamyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + cis-hex-3-en-1-ol
CoA + cis-hex-3-enyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + dodecan-1-ol
CoA + dodecyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + ethanol
CoA + ethyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + eugenol
CoA + eugenyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + geraniol
CoA + geranyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + geranyl alcohol
CoA + geranyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
about 12% of the activity with benzyl alcohol. Product not found in papaya fruit
-
?
acetyl-CoA + heptanol
CoA + heptyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + hexanol
CoA + hexyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + isoamyl alcohol
CoA + isoamyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + isobutanol
CoA + isobutyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + methanol
CoA + methyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + n-butanol
CoA + butyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
relative activity: 17%
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + nonanol
CoA + nonyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + octanol
CoA + octyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + pentanol
CoA + pentyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + phenylethanol
CoA + phenylethyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
about 3% of the activity with benzyl alcohol. Product not found in papaya fruit
-
?
acetyl-CoA + propanol
CoA + propyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
benzyl alcohol + acetyl-CoA
benzyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
butanol + acetyl-CoA
butyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
butanoyl-CoA + butanol
CoA + butyl butanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
product is found in papaya fruit
-
?
butanoyl-CoA + cinnamyl alcohol
CoA + cinnamyl butanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
butanoyl-CoA + ethanol
CoA + ethyl butanoate
show the reaction diagram
poor substrates
product is found in papaya fruit
-
?
cinnamyl alcohol + acetyl-CoA
cinnamyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
coniferyl alcohol + acetyl-CoA
coniferyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ethanol + acetyl-CoA
ethyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
ethanol + butyryl-CoA
ethyl butyrate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geraniol + acetyl-CoA
CoA + geranyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geraniol + acetyl-CoA
geranyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
hexanol + acetyl-CoA
hexyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
hexanoyl-CoA + butanol
CoA + butyl hexanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
product is found in papaya fruit
-
?
hexanoyl-CoA + cinnamyl alcohol
CoA + cinnamyl hexanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
hexanoyl-CoA + ethanol
CoA + ethyl hexanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
product is found in papaya fruit
-
?
hexanoyl-CoA + methanol
CoA + methyl hexanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
product is found in papaya fruit
-
?
isoamylalcohol + acetyl-CoA
isoamyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
isobutanol + acetyl-CoA
isobutyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
methanol + acetyl-CoA
methyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
octanol + acetyl-CoA
octyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
pentanol + acetyl-CoA
penthyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phenylethanol + acetyl-CoA
phenylethyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phenylethyl alcohol + acetyl-CoA
phenylethyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
propanol + acetyl-CoA
propyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
?
propionyl-CoA + cinnamyl alcohol
CoA + cinnamyl propionate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
sinapyl alcohol + acetyl-CoA
sinapyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
71% of the activity with coniferyl alcohol
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
acetyl-CoA + alcohol
CoA + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + isoamyl alcohol
CoA + isoamyl acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isoamylalcohol + acetyl-CoA
isoamyl acetate + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
alcohol acetyltransferase 2 is probably the key enzyme in a steroid detoxification mechanism, alcohol acetyltransferase 1 accounts for 80% of isoamyl acetate production and 30% of ethyl acetate production and might be involved in fatty acid metabolism
-
?
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
acetyl-CoA
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Mg2+
-
1 mM, 10% activation
additional information
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
not stimulatory: Li+, K+, Na+, Ni+, Mn2+, Hg2+, Zn2+ and Cu2++
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate)
Ca2+
-
relative activity: 94%
Co2+
-
1 mM, 83% inhibition
EDTA
-
relative activity: 90%
ergosterol
-
; 2 mM, 73% inhibition
iodoacetate
-
-
linoleic acid
linolenic acid
Mn2+
-
relative activity: 71%
monoolein
-
2 mM, 76% inhibition
monostearin
-
; 2 mM, 58% inhibition
Na+
-
relative activity: 98%
Ni2+
-
1 mM, 68% inhibition
oleoyl-CoA
-
2 mM, 87% inhibition
oxygen
-
inhibits activity to a greater extent for isoamylacetate production than for ethyl acetate production
p-chloromercuribenzoate
phosphatidylcholine
-
-
phosphatidylglycerol
-
-
phosphatidylinositol
phosphatidylserine
-
2 mM, 88% inhibition
Tween 60
-
2 mM, 77% inhibition
Tween 80
-
2 mM, 89% inhibition
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.276
(-)-beta-citronellol
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
pH 8.0, 30C
3.6 - 4.32
2-phenylethanol
12.7
2-phenylethyl alcohol
-
-
0.0226 - 0.19
acetyl-CoA
1.54 - 4.57
benzyl alcohol
2.34
butanol
pH 7.5, 30C
2.03
cinnamyl alcohol
pH 7.5, 30C
0.164
cis-hex-3-en-1-ol
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
pH 8.0, 30C
0.0275 - 0.0565
coniferyl alcohol
4.35
ethanol
pH 7.5, 30C
3.78
Eugenol
pH 7.5, 30C
0.775 - 2.783
geraniol
0.316 - 2.71
Heptanol
1.53
Hexanol
pH 7.5, 30C
0.025 - 29.8
isoamyl alcohol
0.4
Isoamylalcohol
-
-
4.05
methanol
pH 7.5, 30C
0.853
Nonanol
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
pH 8.0, 30C
0.562 - 2.23
Octanol
5.78
Pentanol
pH 7.5, 30C
3.4
phenyl ethanol
-
2.4
Propanol
pH 7.5, 30C
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.199
(-)-beta-citronellol
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
pH 8.0, 30C
0.91 - 49.6
2-phenylethanol
0.128 - 3890
acetyl-CoA
0.119 - 23.5
benzyl alcohol
21.5
butanol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
1480
cinnamyl alcohol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
0.06
cis-hex-3-en-1-ol
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
pH 8.0, 30C
0.81 - 2.05
coniferyl alcohol
7.5
ethanol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
548.5
Eugenol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
0.287 - 70.5
geraniol
0.201 - 170
Heptanol
483
Hexanol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
18.5
methanol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
0.272
Nonanol
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
pH 8.0, 30C
0.213 - 466
Octanol
407
Pentanol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
0.72
phenyl ethanol
Rosa hybrid cultivar
Q5I6B5
-
17.5
Propanol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.72 - 1
(-)-beta-citronellol
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
pH 8.0, 30C
210548
11.4
2-phenylethanol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
1667
33.41 - 50.53
acetyl-CoA
29
5.14
benzyl alcohol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
260
9.1
butanol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
626
0.515 - 5.07
Butanoyl-CoA
802
727
cinnamyl alcohol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
936
0.366
cis-hex-3-en-1-ol
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
pH 8.0, 30C
105720
1.7
ethanol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
69
150
Eugenol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
909
0.366 - 180
geraniol
987
0.636 - 62
Heptanol
5156
314
Hexanol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
1412
0.21 - 5.5
Hexanoyl-CoA
395
4.5
methanol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
83
0.319
Nonanol
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
pH 8.0, 30C
20435
0.378 - 208
Octanol
1241
71
Pentanol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
1542
7.2
Propanol
Fragaria x ananassa
G1EFQ3
pH 7.5, 30C
976
3.25 - 5.85
propionyl-CoA
350
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6
highest activity with coniferyl alcohol
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5 - 8.5
-
approx. 40% of maximal activity at pH 5.0, 80% of maximal activity at pH 8.5
7
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
75% of maximum activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
10 - 40
-
25% of maximal activity at 10C, 50% of maximal activity at 40C
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.3
Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia
-
isoelectric focusing
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
with and without skin tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
AATase for ethyl acetate peaks at the beginning of the exponential growth phase and that for isoamylacetate at its end
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
17000
-
gel filtration
22000
-
x * 22000, SDS-PAGE
37000
-
SDS-PAGE
40000
-
gel filtration
43200
x * 43200, calculated, x * 43000, SDS-PAGE
50000
-
gel filtration
51400
x * 51400, calculated
57000
-
alcohol acetyltransferase I
60000
-
x * 60000, SDS-PAGE
61059
-
x * 61059, deduced from nucleotide sequence
61100
-
x * 61100, alcohol acetyltransferase I
61900
-
x * 61900, alcohol acetyltransferase II
63200
-
x * 63200, alcohol acetyltransferase I
220000
-
gel filtration
270000
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
monomer
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.5 - 7
-
-
487556
7.5 - 9
-
-
487558
7.5 - 8
-
no loss of activity after 22 h at 4C
487559
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
10 - 30
-
enzyme retains approximately 90% and 50% of the original activity after being incubated at 10C and 30C for 1 h, respectively
20
-
rapid inactivation above
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
very labile at pH values lower than pH 7.0
-
ORGANIC SOLVENT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ethanol
-
15%, stable
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-80C, 15% glycerol, no loss of activity
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ammonium sulfate, Biofine HIC-PH, DEAE-5PW, Mono-P
-
ammonium sulfate, Sephadex G-150, DEAE-Sephadex A-50
-
enzyme is solubilized from lipid particles using 1% Triton X-100 and then purified by three steps of chromatographic separations with diethylaminoethlyl (DEAE) Sepharose, Sephadex G-75 and Octyl Sepharose, respectively
-
partially purified
-
PBE 94 column, DEAE-cellulose, Toypearl HW60, hydroxyapatite, octyl Sepharose
-
recombinant protein purified to 99% homogeneity using nickel-based affinity chromatography
recombinant protein, partial
recombinant renzyme, partial
Sepharose 6B, DEAE-Sephadex A50, partially purified
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
a pPTB construct is used, expression experiments are performed in Escherichia coli cells; into the pBAD-TOPO vector, furthermore a pTRC construct is used, expression experiments are performed in Escherichia coli cells
-
cloned from the VIN13 commercial wine yeast strain, and placed under the constitutive control of the PGK1 regulatory sequences. Overexpression of ATF1 in vine yeast significantly increased the concentrations of ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate and ethyl caproate; cloned from the VIN13 commercial wine yeast strain, and placed under the constitutive control of the PGK1 regulatory sequences to generate plasmids pATF2-s. Overexpression of ATF2 in vine yeast increased the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate to a lesser degree than overexpression of ATF1
-
cloning of ATF1 and ATF2 genes encoding alcohol acetyltransferases
-
cloning of ATF1 gene encoding alcohol acetyltransferase, expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
cloning of Lg-ATF1 gene encoding alcohol acetyltransferase, expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
cloning of the ATF1 gene encoding alcohol acetyltransferase 1 from wine yeast
-
complete coding region of PhCFAT cDNA subcloned into expression vector pET-28a and expressed in Escherichia coli
expression in Escherichia coli
expression in Escherichia coli, alcohol acetyltransferase AFT1; expression in Escherichia coli and in Clostridium acetobutylicum, alcohol acetyltransferase AFT2
-
expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
generation of transgenic petunia plants expressing the rose gene under the control of a CaMV-35S promoter
overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Gas chromatographic analysis of small-scale fermentations with the transformant strain shows that KlATF overexpression only causes a moderate increase in acetate esters compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATF1 overexpression results in a substantial increase in acetate ester levels
-
overexpression of ATF1p-GFP fusion protein in Sacharomyces cerevisiae
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
accumulation of transcripts during ripening is induced by ethylene; accumulation of transcripts during ripening is inhibited by 1-methylcyclopropene; exclusively expressed in fruit tissues, high level of transcripts accumulates during ripening
expression during fruit receptacle growth and ripening
PhCFAT transcript levels decrease after ethylene release, diurnal rhythm of PhCFAT expression
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
E509A/E512A/E513A
-
mutation in isoform Atf1, mutated protein shows 84% localization to lipid droplets
L511A/L514A/Y518A/L512A
-
mutation in isoform Atf1, loss of membrane association
R22A/R23A/R36A
-
mutation in isoform Atf2, protein is localized in the cytoplasm
W518A/F521/I529A/F532A R36A
-
mutation in isoform Atf2, protein is localized in the cytoplasm
E509A/E512A/E513A
-
mutation in isoform Atf1, mutated protein shows 84% localization to lipid droplets
-
L511A/L514A/Y518A/L512A
-
mutation in isoform Atf1, loss of membrane association
-
R22A/R23A/R36A
-
mutation in isoform Atf2, protein is localized in the cytoplasm
-
W518A/F521/I529A/F532A R36A
-
mutation in isoform Atf2, protein is localized in the cytoplasm
-
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
biotechnology
-
a low-cost fermentation process for isoamyl acetate biosynthesis by overexpressing the yeast alcohol acetyl-transferase AFT1 in Escherichia coli is developed; a low-cost fermentation process for isoamyl acetate biosynthesis by overexpressing the yeast alcohol acetyl-transferase AFT2 in Escherichia coli is developed
food industry
-
after 5 days of fermentation, the concentrations of ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate in yellow rice wines fermented with yeasts overexpressing isoform ATF2 increase to 137.79 mg/L (an approximate 4.9fold increase relative to the parent cell), 26.68 mg/L, and 7.60 mg/L, respectively
nutrition
-
polishing of rice for use in sake brewing is necessary to remove inositol from rice, thereby increasing AATase activity. A high AATase activity leads to an abundance of acetate esters of higher alcohols in sake, such as isoamyl acetate, one of the most favorable odor-enhancing compounds
synthesis