Information on EC 1.97.1.1 - chlorate reductase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.97.1.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
chlorate reductase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
AH2 + chlorate = A + H2O + chlorite
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
chlorate reduction
-
-
non-pathway related
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
chlorite:acceptor oxidoreductase
Flavins or benzylviologen can act as acceptor.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
60382-73-2
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain BC
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Alicycliphilus sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DSM 11199
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bacterium perc1ace
ATCC 202172
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Dechlorosoma sp.
Dechlorospirillum anomalous
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Dechlorospirillum anomalous NCCB100047
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
K12, chlorate resistant mutant chl. C-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
I3R9M9: alpha-subunit (narG), I3R9M8: beta subunit (narH)
I3R9M9 and I3R9M8
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
I3R9M9: alpha-subunit (narG), I3R9M8: beta subunit (narH)
I3R9M9 and I3R9M8
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain AW-1(T)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain PDA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain PDA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B 10, E1F1, AD2, C2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DSM 158
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sporomusa sp.
a mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, is isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. The isolate is able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, is isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. The isolate is able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
AH2 + chlorate
A + H2O + chlorite
show the reaction diagram
AH2 + perchlorate
?
show the reaction diagram
bromate + reduced electron acceptor
bromite + H2O + oxidized electron acceptor
show the reaction diagram
bromate + reduced methyl viologen
bromite + H2O + methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
chlorate + reduced electron acceptor
chlorite + H2O + oxidized electron acceptor
show the reaction diagram
chlorate + reduced methyl viologen
chlorite + H2O + methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
iodate + reduced electron acceptor
iodite + H2O + oxidized electron acceptor
show the reaction diagram
nitrate + reduced electron acceptor
nitrite + H2O + oxidized electron acceptor
show the reaction diagram
perchlorate + reduced electron acceptor
chlorate + H2O + oxidized electron acceptor
show the reaction diagram
perchlorate + reduced methyl viologen
chlorate + H2O + methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
AH2 + chlorate
A + H2O + chlorite
show the reaction diagram
AH2 + perchlorate
?
show the reaction diagram
chlorate + reduced electron acceptor
chlorite + H2O + oxidized electron acceptor
show the reaction diagram
perchlorate + reduced electron acceptor
chlorate + H2O + oxidized electron acceptor
show the reaction diagram
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
cytochrome c
-
6 kDa periplasmatic cytochrome c
molybdenum cofactor
-
molybdo-enzyme
molybdopterin
sequence contains a molybdopterin-binding domain
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Fe
-
contains iron: 30.6 mol, based of apparent molecular mass of 420000 Da
Molybdenum
NaCl
I3R9M9 and I3R9M8
the maximum specific chlorate reductase activity is detected in the presence of low NaCl concentrations at 35 C. At salt concentrations higher than 0.4 M, the maximum specific activity can be detected at higher temperatures (between 40C and 45C)
Se
-
contains selenium 2.9 mol, based of apparent molecular mass of 420000 Da
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
additional information
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.06
benzyl viologen
-
-
0.005 - 2.4
Chlorate
0.19
FMN
-
-
0.027
perchlorate
-
-
0.62
riboflavin
-
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
46
Chlorate
Haloferax mediterranei
I3R9M9 and I3R9M8
pH 8, 40C
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
19
Chlorate
Haloferax mediterranei
I3R9M9 and I3R9M8
pH 8, 40C
2266
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.006
-
anaerobic
0.009
-
anaerobic + 0.35% KNO3
0.3
Alicycliphilus sp.
-
cells grown on acetate and chlorate
11.4
-
activity of chlorate reductase of strain AW-1 grown on acetate and chlorate
26.6
-
activity of chlorate reductase of strain AW-1 grown on n-decane and chlorate
42
purified enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C; purified enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C; purified enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
-
pI: 4.55
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5 - 6.5
-
-
5.5 - 9
I3R9M9 and I3R9M8
pH 5.0: about 85% of maximal activity, pH 9.0: about 75% of maximal activity
5.5 - 10
50% of maximum activity at pH 5.5 and 10; 50% of maximum activity at pH 5.5 and 10; 50% of maximum activity at pH 5.5 and 10
6 - 10
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
35
I3R9M9 and I3R9M8
the maximum specific chlorate reductase activity is detected in the presence of low NaCl concentrations at 35C. At salt concentrations higher than 0.4 M, the maximum specific activity can be detected at higher temperatures (between 40C and 45C)
37
Sporomusa sp.
-
assay at, optimal temperature
40
I3R9M9 and I3R9M8
assay at
40 - 45
I3R9M9 and I3R9M8
the maximum specific chlorate reductase activity is detected in the presence of low NaCl concentrations at 35C. At salt concentrations higher than 0.4 M, the maximum specific activity can be detected at higher temperatures (between 40C and 45C)
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
8.6
-
calculated pI of expressed GST-fusion protein
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
bacterium perc1ace
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
27000
-
alphabetagamma, 1 * 60000 + 1 * 48000 + 1 * 27000, SDS-PAGE
34000
alphabetagamma, 1 * 97000 + 1 * 38000 + 1 * 34000, SDS-PAGE, native mass by gel filtration; alphabetagamma, 1 * 97000 + 1 * 38000 + 1 * 34000, SDS-PAGE, native mass by gel filtration; alphabetagamma, 1 * 97000 + 1 * 38000 + 1 * 34000, SDS-PAGE, native mass by gel filtration
37000
x * 37000, calculated for beta-subunit
38000
alphabetagamma, 1 * 97000 + 1 * 38000 + 1 * 34000, SDS-PAGE, native mass by gel filtration; alphabetagamma, 1 * 97000 + 1 * 38000 + 1 * 34000, SDS-PAGE, native mass by gel filtration; alphabetagamma, 1 * 97000 + 1 * 38000 + 1 * 34000, SDS-PAGE, native mass by gel filtration
40000
Dechlorosoma sp.
-
alpha, beta, 1 * 100000 + 1 * 40000, SDS-PAGE
48000
-
alphabetagamma, 1 * 60000 + 1 * 48000 + 1 * 27000, SDS-PAGE
56000
-
1 * 75000 + 1 * 63000 + 1 * 56000, SDS-PAGE, 2-mercaptoethanol containing gels
60000
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alphabetagamma, 1 * 60000 + 1 * 48000 + 1 * 27000, SDS-PAGE
63000
-
1 * 75000 + 1 * 63000 + 1 * 56000, SDS-PAGE, 2-mercaptoethanol containing gels
75000
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1 * 75000 + 1 * 63000 + 1 * 56000, SDS-PAGE, 2-mercaptoethanol containing gels
95000
-
alpha3,beta3, 3 * 95000 + 3* 40000, each dimer: alpha and beta contains 1 Mo, 1 Se and 10 Fe, SDS-PAGE
97000
alphabetagamma, 1 * 97000 + 1 * 38000 + 1 * 34000, SDS-PAGE, native mass by gel filtration; alphabetagamma, 1 * 97000 + 1 * 38000 + 1 * 34000, SDS-PAGE, native mass by gel filtration; alphabetagamma, 1 * 97000 + 1 * 38000 + 1 * 34000, SDS-PAGE, native mass by gel filtration
100000
Dechlorosoma sp.
-
alpha, beta, 1 * 100000 + 1 * 40000, SDS-PAGE
167000
gel filtration; gel filtration; gel filtration
180000
-
gel filtration
420000
-
SDS-PAGE
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
?
x * 37000, calculated for beta-subunit
hexamer
oligomer
trimer
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
60
-
10 min, stable
63
-
half-life: 12 min
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
oxygen sensitive, aerobically stored extracts show a half-life of inactivation of 2 to 3 d
-
437685
sensitive to oxygen exposure
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
0C, 40% glycerol, 8 d
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
cell extracts are prepared
inclusion bodies from Escherichia coli and native enzyme
-
periplasmatic extract is prepared
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
C-subunit expressed as GST-fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
both chlorite dismutase and chlorate reductase are expressed during aerobic growth. Transfer to anaerobic conditions with chlorate results in significantly enhanced enzyme activities and mRNA levels for both enzymes. Absence of oxygen is necessary for the induction to occur. Chlorate reductase shows about 200-times higher enzyme activity in anaerobically induced cells, whereas the increase in mRNA is only about 10fold
Renatured/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
analysis
biotechnology
degradation