Information on EC 1.3.99.30 - phytoene desaturase (3,4-didehydrolycopene-forming)

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.3.99.30
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
phytoene desaturase (3,4-didehydrolycopene-forming)
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REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
15-cis-phytoene + 5 acceptor = all-trans-3,4-didehydrolycopene + 5 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + acceptor = all-trans-phytofluene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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all-trans-lycopene + acceptor = all-trans-3,4-didehydrolycopene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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all-trans-neurosporene + acceptor = all-trans-lycopene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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all-trans-phytofluene + acceptor = all-trans-zeta-carotene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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all-trans-zeta-carotene + acceptor = all-trans-neurosporene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
neurosporaxanthin biosynthesis
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NIL
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Carotenoid biosynthesis
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Metabolic pathways
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Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
15-cis-phytoene:acceptor oxidoreductase (3,4-didehydrolycopene-forming)
This enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and catalyses up to five desaturation steps (cf. EC 1.3.99.28 [phytoene desaturase (neurosporene-forming)], EC 1.3.99.29 [phytoene desaturase (zeta-carotene-forming)] and EC 1.3.99.31 [phytoene desaturase (lycopene-forming)]).
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1-hydroxylycopene + acceptor
1-hydroxy-3',4'-didehydrolycopene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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?
1-hydroxyneurosporene + acceptor
1-hydroxylycopene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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?
15-cis-phytoene + 5 acceptor
all-trans-3,4-didehydrolycopene + 5 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-lycopene + 1 acceptor
all-trans-3,4-didehydrolycopene + 1 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-lycopene + acceptor
all-trans-3,4-didehydrolycopene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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?
all-trans-neurosporene + 2 acceptor
all-trans-3,4-didehydrolycopene + 2 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-phytofluene + 4 acceptor
all-trans-3,4-didehydrolycopene + 4 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-zeta-carotene + 3 acceptor
all-trans-3,4-didehydrolycopene + 3 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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gamma-carotene and 1,1'-dihydroxylycopene are not accepted as substrate
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
15-cis-phytoene + 5 acceptor
all-trans-3,4-didehydrolycopene + 5 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
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addition of FAD results in product formation close to that of the control without additions
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
NAD+
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more than 2fold stimulation of activity compared to control, assay with supernatant of Escherichia coli recombinantly expressing phytoene desaturase from Neurospora crassa
NADP+
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stimulation is lower than with NAD+, assay with supernatant of Escherichia coli recombinantly expressing phytoene desaturase from Neurospora crassa
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
8
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assay at
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30
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assay at
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
?
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x * 62000, SDS-PAGE
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
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expression in Escherichia coli. Generation of a 3,4-didehydrolycopene accumulating Escherichia coli strain
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overexpression in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. To achieve this, the plasmids pPR40F and pPR40R are introduced in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous CBS 6938. In the nontransformed strain, cyclization of lycopene, which directs the metabolic flux towards astaxanthin, is the dominating reaction. When the gene encoding phytoene desaturase is overexpressed, the five-step desaturation to 3,4-didehydrolycopene is intensified, resulting in an accumulation of torulene and 3-hydroxy-3'-4'-didehydro-beta-psi-caroten-4-one as subsequent products
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