Information on EC 1.3.99.29 - phytoene desaturase (zeta-carotene-forming)

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.3.99.29
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
phytoene desaturase (zeta-carotene-forming)
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REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
15-cis-phytoene + 2 acceptor = all-trans-zeta-carotene + 2 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + acceptor = all-trans-phytofluene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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all-trans-phytofluene + acceptor = all-trans-zeta-carotene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Metabolic pathways
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Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
15-cis-phytoene:acceptor oxidoreductase (zeta-carotene-forming)
The enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and catalyses up to two desaturation steps (cf. EC 1.3.99.28 [phytoene desaturase (neurosporene-forming)], EC 1.3.99.30 [phytoene desaturase (3,4-didehydrolycopene-forming)] and EC 1.3.99.31 [phytoene desaturase (lycopene-forming)]).
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
15-cis-phytoene + 2 acceptor
all-trans-zeta-carotene + 2 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + acceptor
all-trans-phytofluene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + decyl plastoquinone
all-trans-phytofluene + decyl plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-phytoene + acceptor
all-trans-lycopene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-phytofluene + acceptor
all-trans-zeta-carotene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-phytofluene + decyl plastoquinone
all-trans-zeta-carotene + decyl plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
15-cis-phytoene + 2 acceptor
all-trans-zeta-carotene + 2 reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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involved in carotenoid biosynthesis
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?
15-cis-phytoene + acceptor
all-trans-phytofluene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-phytoene + acceptor
all-trans-lycopene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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the enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis
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?
all-trans-phytofluene + acceptor
all-trans-zeta-carotene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
decyl-plastoquinone
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
noflurazon
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norflurazon
a bleaching herbicide that specifically inhibits PDS activity and carotenoid biosynthesis
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.00032
recombinant mutant L516R, cell extracts of transformed Escherichia coli, pH 7.2, 28°C
0.0004
recombinant wild-type enzyme, cell extracts of transformed Escherichia coli, pH 7.2, 28°C
0.00053
recombinant mutant L516F, cell extracts of transformed Escherichia coli, pH 7.2, 28°C
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
gene pds, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis of wild-type and mutant E17, expression of wild-type and mutants in Escherichia coli
gene pds, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, functional expression in Escherichia coli strain JM109 or BL21(DE3), subcloning in Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha
gene pds, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comarisons
gene pds, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic tree, expression of wild-type and mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli strains JM109 and BL21(DE3), quantitative real time PCR expression assay
when glr0867 is expressed in Escherichia coli, lycopene accumulates as the major pigment, and intermediates (asymmetric-zeta-carotene and neurosporene) are also detected
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
E143K
naturally occcuring mutation, mutation pds1-1
L505F
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutation enhances enzyme desaturation activity by 29% compared to the wild-type enzyme, L505F exhibits a 27.7fold higher resistance to the herbicide norflurazon
L64F/E143K
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation pds1-5, with in-frame deletion of PSY residues 7-14
L64P
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation pds1-4, with in-frame deletion of PSY residues 7-14
L64P/E143K
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation pds1-2, with in-frame deletion of PSY residues 7-14
L64P/K90M/E143K
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation pds1-6, with in-frame deletion of PSY residues 7-14
E143K
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naturally occcuring mutation, mutation pds1-1
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L64F/E143K
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site-directed mutagenesis, mutation pds1-5, with in-frame deletion of PSY residues 7-14
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L64P
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site-directed mutagenesis, mutation pds1-4, with in-frame deletion of PSY residues 7-14
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L64P/E143K
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site-directed mutagenesis, mutation pds1-2, with in-frame deletion of PSY residues 7-14
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L505F
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site-directed mutagenesis, the mutation enhances enzyme desaturation activity by 29% compared to the wild-type enzyme, L505F exhibits a 27.7fold higher resistance to the herbicide norflurazon
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L516F
naturally occuring mutant strain E17, the mutant enzyme is insensitive, with 31fold higher resistane compared to the wild-tpe enzyme, to inhibition by norflurazon.The mutant also shows higher catalytic efficiency than the wild-type enzyme. Induced by high-light irradiation or glucose, E17 produces 44 or 36% more astaxanthin than the wild-type when cultured in media without norflurazon
L516R
the mutant show reduced enzyme activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
L516F
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naturally occuring mutant strain E17, the mutant enzyme is insensitive, with 31fold higher resistane compared to the wild-tpe enzyme, to inhibition by norflurazon.The mutant also shows higher catalytic efficiency than the wild-type enzyme. Induced by high-light irradiation or glucose, E17 produces 44 or 36% more astaxanthin than the wild-type when cultured in media without norflurazon
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L516R
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the mutant show reduced enzyme activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
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additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
analysis