Information on EC 1.3.99.23 - all-trans-retinol 13,14-reductase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.3.99.23
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
all-trans-retinol 13,14-reductase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol + acceptor = all-trans-retinol + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
redox reaction
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reduction
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Retinol metabolism
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol:acceptor 13,14-oxidoreductase
The reaction is only known to occur in the opposite direction to that given above, with the enzyme being specific for all-trans-retinol as substrate. Neither all-trans-retinoic acid nor 9-cis, 11-cis or 13-cis-retinol isomers are substrates. May play a role in the metabolism of vitamin A.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
149147-14-8
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
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retinol signaling plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of cellular phenotype in embryonic and adult vertebrate tissues. all-trans-Retinoic acid functions as the activating ligand for a family of ligand-activated transcription factors, the retinoic acid receptors, which form heterodimers with the retinoid X receptors to regulate gene transcription. Through its activation of the receptors, all-trans-retinoic acid regulates the expression of over 500 protein-coding genes
physiological function
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RetSat is required for adipocyte differentiation in the 3T3-L1 cell culture model, analysis of the mechanism involved in this putative proadipogenic effect of RetSat, overview. RetSat-null mice have normal levels of retinol and retinyl palmitate in liver, serum, and adipose tissue, but, in contrast to wild-type mice, are deficient in the production of all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol from dietary vitamin A. Despite accumulating more fat, RetSat-null mice maintained on either low-fat or high-fat diets gain weight and have similar rates of food intake as age- and gender-matched wild-type control littermates, ablation of RetSat does not result in alterations in total body weight gain but could still affect the relative composition and size of adipose stores, phenotype, overview
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(R)-all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol + acceptor
all-trans-retinol + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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retinol saturase catalyzes the saturation of all-trans-retinol to produce (R)-all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol
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r
all-trans-13,14-didehydroretinol + reduced acceptor
all-trans-13,14-dihydro-3,4-didehydroretinol + acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-13,14-didehydroretinol + reduced acceptor
all-trans-7,8-dihydro-3,4-didehydroretinol + acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol + acceptor
all-trans-retinol + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol + reduced acceptor
all-trans-13,14-dihydro-3,4-didehydroretinol + acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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-
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-
?
all-trans-3,4-didehydroretinol + reduced acceptor
all-trans-13,14-dihydro-3,4-didehydroretinol + acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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all-trans-3,4-didehydroretinol is preferentially converted to all-trans-13,14-dihydro-3,4-didehydroretinol
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all-trans-7,8-dihydroretinol + reduced acceptor
all-trans-7,8-dihydro-3,4-didehydroretinol + acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
all-trans-retinol + reduced acceptor
all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol + acceptor
show the reaction diagram
all-trans-retinol + reduced acceptor
all-trans-7,8-dihydroretinol + acceptor
show the reaction diagram
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(R)-all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol + acceptor
all-trans-retinol + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
-
retinol saturase catalyzes the saturation of all-trans-retinol to produce (R)-all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol
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-
r
all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol + acceptor
all-trans-retinol + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
all-trans-retinol + reduced acceptor
all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol + acceptor
show the reaction diagram
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
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a short hairpin RNA targeting retinol saturase strongly protects cells from tert-butylhydroperoxide and H2O2 by specifically reducing the expression of retinol saturase
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma
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thiazolidinedione
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells with high enzyme mRNA level, quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
hatchling
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in NIH-3T3 cells and HEK-293 cells
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expressed in T-REx-293 cells
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into the Xho I site of pCDNA4/TO and expressed in T-REx-293 cells, cloned into the vector pCRII-TOPO
quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
effect of retinol on gene expressions in P-19 cells, overview
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in adipocytes down-regulated in obesity
incubation of mature adipocytes with pioglitazone or the non-thiazolidinedione ligand GW7845 increases RetSat mRNA expression, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, PPARgamma, is required for RetSat expression in mature adipocytes
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
E34A
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mutant, mutation within the highly conserved region of the dinucleotide-binding motif
E96A
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mutant, mutation within the highly conserved region of the dinucleotide-binding motif
E34A
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mutant, mutation within the highly conserved region of the dinucleotide-binding motif
E96A
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mutant, mutation within the highly conserved region of the dinucleotide-binding motif
additional information
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generation of RetSat-/- mice, phenotype in comparison to wild-type mice, overview
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
analysis
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the mouse pluripotent P-19 cell metabolizes retinol to atRA and thus can be used in a cell-based screen for disruptors of the pathway. The disruption of the pathway is easily detected and quantitated, the P-19 cell provides an in vitro model system for identifying and exploring the mechanism of action of chemicals that interfere with the critical cellular pathway
medicine
additional information