Information on EC 1.3.5.5 - 15-cis-phytoene desaturase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.3.5.5
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
15-cis-phytoene desaturase
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REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
15,9'-dicis-phytofluene + plastoquinone = 9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + 2 plastoquinone = 9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + 2 plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + plastoquinone = 15,9'-dicis-phytofluene + plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
carotenoid biosynthesis
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Carotenoid biosynthesis
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Metabolic pathways
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Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
15-cis-phytoene:plastoquinone oxidoreductase
This enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in plants and cyanobacteria. The enzyme from Synechococcus can also use NAD+ and NADP+ as electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The enzyme from Gentiana lutea shows no activity with NAD+ or NADP+ [1].
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
var. botrytis, white cultivar Stovepipe
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Yolo Wonder
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Marc.
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Haematococcus pluvialis
L. f. Royle
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
obtained from Escherichia coli transformant
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Chinese Spring
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
both the albino and dwarf phenotypes of the pds3 mutant result from functional disruption of the PDS3 gene. Chloroplast development is arrested at the proplastid stage in the pds3 mutant. Further analysis shows that a high level of phytoene is accumulated in the pds3 mutant. Disrupting PDS3 gene results in gene expression changes involved in at least 20 metabolic pathways, including the inhibition of many genes in carotenoid, chlorophyll, and GA biosynthesis pathways. The accumulated phytoene in the pds3 mutant might play an important role in certain negative feedbacks to affect gene expression of diverse cellular pathways
metabolism
maize phytoene desaturase and zeta-carotene desaturase catalyse a poly-Z desaturation pathway to the predominate geometric isomer 7,9,7',9'-tetra-Z-lycopene (poly-Z-lycopene or prolycopene), and not the all-trans substrate required by the downstream lycopene cyclase enzymes
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
15,9'-dicis-phytofluene + plastoquinone
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
15-cis-phytoene + 2 decyl-plastoquinone
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + 2 decyl-plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + 2 decyl-ubiquinone
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + 2 decyl-plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
-
this quinone derivative is used in the study because the natural C45-ubiquinone is not available commercially
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-
?
15-cis-phytoene + 2 decylubiquinone
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + 2 decyl-plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
-
this quinone derivative is used in the study because the natural C45-ubiquinone is not available commercially
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-
?
15-cis-phytoene + 2 plastoquinone
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + 2 plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-1,4-benzoquinone
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-1,4-benzoquinol
show the reaction diagram
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-
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-
?
15-cis-phytoene + 5-n-undecyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole + H2O
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + 5-n-undecyl-4,6,7-trihydroxybenzothiazole
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
15-cis-phytoene + acceptor
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + duroquinone
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + duroquinol
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
15-cis-phytoene + plastoquinone
15,9'-dicis-phytofluene + plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
15-cis-phytoene + plastoquinone
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + 2 plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
-
the biosynthetic pathway of carotenoid synthesis involves several steps of desaturation requiring free energy, for instance the transition from phytoene to phytofluene achieved by phytoene desaturase. This reaction is associated with a reduction of plastoquinone. The oxidation of the plastoquinol is then achieved by a plastoquinol:oxygen oxidoreductase. Might additionally mediate the reduction of plastoquinone by internal reductants
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?
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
15,9'-dicis-phytofluene + plastoquinone
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
15-cis-phytoene + 2 plastoquinone
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + 2 plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + acceptor
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
15-cis-phytoene + plastoquinone
15,9'-dicis-phytofluene + plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
15-cis-phytoene + plastoquinone
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-carotene + 2 plastoquinol
show the reaction diagram
-
the biosynthetic pathway of carotenoid synthesis involves several steps of desaturation requiring free energy, for instance the transition from phytoene to phytofluene achieved by phytoene desaturase. This reaction is associated with a reduction of plastoquinone. The oxidation of the plastoquinol is then achieved by a plastoquinol:oxygen oxidoreductase. Might additionally mediate the reduction of plastoquinone by internal reductants
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?
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
decyl-plastoquinone
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this quinone derivative is used in the study because the natural C45-plastoquinone is not available commercially
FAD
the deduced amino acid sequence of wheat phytoene desaturase reveals a typical pyridine dinucleotide binding motif generally associated with the binding of FAD
plastoquinone
quinone
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since phytoene desaturation responds to the redox state of quinones, which is adjusted by the respiratory redox pathway, the two reactions must be regarded as being mechanistically linked. Using redox titrations, it is shown that the optimal activity lies in the range of the midpoint potential of the plastoquinone/plastohydroquinone redox couple
Ubiquinone-10
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this quinone derivative is used in the study because the natural C45-plastoquinone is not available commercially
additional information
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INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2R,5S)-5-methyl-2-(3-trifluoromethylbenzyl)-3-oxomorpholine
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; less active inhibitor compared to (2R,5S)-5-methyl-2-(3-trifluoromethylbenzyl)-3-ketomorpholine; very low inhibition
fluridone
norflorazon
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norflurazon
norflurazone
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O-[1-ethyl-2-(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)]ethyl-N-(2-chlorobenzyl)carbamate
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O-[1-ethyl-2-(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)]ethyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)carbamate
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O-[1-methyl-2-(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)]ethyl-N-benzylcarbamate
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additional information
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with respect to a structure-activity relationship the oxygen atom of the phenoxy group and a carbamate structure in O-(1-ethyl-2-phenoxy)ethyl-N-aralkylcarbamates studied are found to be essential for strong PDS inhibitors. phytoene desaturase inhibitor
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.039
5-n-undecyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole
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pH 7.8, 27°C, chromoplast homogenate
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
siliques and roots show the lowest levels of expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
siliques and roots show the lowest levels of expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
PDS transcripts are nearly absent in the roots and seeds
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
BoPDS is present at similar levels in chromoplasts and leucoplasts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
350000
the plastid membrane enzyme form is present in a large protein complex of approximately 350000 Da, the stroma version is in an approximately 660000 Da complex
660000
the plastid membrane enzyme form is present in a large protein complex of approximately 350000 Da, the stroma version is in an approximately 660000 Da complex
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
the enzyme form from stroma appears to be slightly larger in size than the membrane version, which may be because of different posttranslational modifications of BoPDS in these two locations
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in insect cells using the baculovirus system
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expression in Escherichia coli
heterologous expression in a strain of Escherichia coli containing a carotenoid-producing plasmid
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
although carotenoid accumulation is strongly induced during flower development, only very low concentrations of phytoene desaturase transcripts are detectable, while the corresponding protein accumulates in low, but measurable amounts, appearing in soluble and membrane-bound states
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Pds is constitutively expressed. Endosperm carotenogenesis is not regulated by increasing the level of phytoene desaturase transcripts
regulation of phytoene desaturase occurs primarily at the mRNA level, most likely by transcriptional control. The enzyme is induced in response to stress conditions leading to biosynthesis of secondary carotenoids
Haematococcus pluvialis
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the CitPDS1 transcript in the juice sacs/segment epidermis (edible part) is at a low level in the young fruit, and it increases toward maturation. In the peel the level of the CitPDS1 transcript remains constant after an increase in July
there is no significant induction of phytoene desaturase gene expression specific to white tissue, indicating that phytoene desaturase expression is independent of the pigment status of the cells
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
L504R
Haematococcus pluvialis
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the modified phytoene desaturase is still active in conversion of phytoene to zeta-carotene and exhibits 43fold-higher resistance to the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. The norflurazon-resistant phytoene desaturase gene is used for successful nuclear transformation and genetic engineering of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway for accelerated astaxanthin biosynthesis
R304X
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substitution of arginine304 present in the wild-type Hydrilla verticillata phytoene desaturase with all 19 other natural amino acids. In vitro the threonine (Thr), cysteine (Cys), alanine (Ala) and glutamine (Gln) mutations impart the highest resistance to fluridone. The three natural mutations [Cys, serine (Ser), histidine (His)] and the wild-type phytoene desaturase protein are tested in vitro against seven inhibitors of phytoene desaturase representing several classes of herbicides. These mutations confer cross-resistance to norflurazon and overall negative cross-resistance to beflubutamid, picolinafen and diflufenican. The Thr304 Hydrilla pds mutant is an excellent marker for the selection of transgenic plants. Seedlings harbouring Thr304 pds have a maximum resistance to sensitivity (R/S) ratio of 57 and 14 times higher than that of the wild-type for treatments with norflurazon and fluridone, respectively. These plants exhibit normal growth and development, even after long-term exposure to herbicide. As Thr304 pds is of plant origin, it could become more acceptable than other selectable markers for use in genetically modified food
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture
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the Thr304 Hydrilla pds mutant is an excellent marker for the selection of transgenic plants. Seedlings harbouring Thr304 pds have a maximum resistance to sensitivity (R/S) ratio of 57 and 14 times higher than that of the wild-type for treatments with norflurazon and fluridone, respectively. These plants exhibit normal growth and development, even after long-term exposure to herbicide. As Thr304 pds is of plant origin, it could become more acceptable than other selectable markers for use in genetically modified food
synthesis
Haematococcus pluvialis
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the norflurazon-resistant phytoene desaturase gene is used for successful nuclear transformation and genetic engineering of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway for accelerated astaxanthin biosynthesis (astaxanthin as a food supplement for humans)