Information on EC 1.3.1.83 - geranylgeranyl diphosphate reductase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.3.1.83
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
geranylgeranyl diphosphate reductase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
phytyl diphosphate + 3 NADP+ = geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 NADPH + 3 H+
show the reaction diagram
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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Metabolic pathways
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Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
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chlorophyll metabolism
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isoprenoid biosynthesis
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
geranylgeranyl-diphosphate:NADP+ oxidoreductase
This enzyme also acts on geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll a. The reaction occurs in three steps. Which order the three double bonds are reduced is not known.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
86922-67-0
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
fragment; ecotype Columbia
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. Batsch
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
inactivation of the gene chlP encoding the enzyme in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The resulting DELTAchlP mutant accumulates exclusively geranylgeranylated chlorophyll a instead of its phytylated analogue as well as low amounts of alpha-tocotrienol instead of alpha-tocopherol. Whereas the contents of chlorophyll and total carotenoids are decreased, abundance of phycobilisomes is increased in DELTAchlP cells. The mutant assembles functional photosystems I and II as judged from 77 K fluorescence and electron transport measurements. The mutant is unable to grow photoautotrophically due to instability and rapid degradation of the photosystems in the absence of added glucose. It is suggested that instability of the photosystems in DchlP is directly related to accumulation of geranylgeranylated chlorophyll a
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
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highly conserved regions of characterized geranylgeranyl reductases, GGRs, from archaea, plants, and bacteria, overview
malfunction
physiological function
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DGGR catalyzes a critical step in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids. The saturation of hydrocarbon chains confers the ability to resist hydrolysis and oxidation and helps archaea withstand extreme conditions
additional information
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structural basis for recognition of a geranyl group by geranylgeranyl reductases, GGRs, overview
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + NADPH + H+
phytyl diphosphate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
geranylgeranyl-bacteriochlorophyll a + 3 NADPH + 3 H+
phythyl-bacteriochlorophyll a + 3 NADP+
show the reaction diagram
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?
geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll + 3 NADPH + 3 H+
phythyl-chlorophyll + 3 NADP+
show the reaction diagram
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reduction in enzyme activity in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants is accompanied by the reduction in total chlorophyll and tocopherol content and the accumulation of geranylgeranylated chlorophyll. The presence of geranylgeranylated chlorophyll has no influence on harvesting and transfer of light energy in either photosystem. However, the reduced tocopherol content of the thylakoid membrane is a limiting factor for defensive reactions to photo-oxidative stress
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additional information
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + NADPH + H+
phytyl diphosphate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll + 3 NADPH + 3 H+
phythyl-chlorophyll + 3 NADP+
show the reaction diagram
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reduction in enzyme activity in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants is accompanied by the reduction in total chlorophyll and tocopherol content and the accumulation of geranylgeranylated chlorophyll. The presence of geranylgeranylated chlorophyll has no influence on harvesting and transfer of light energy in either photosystem. However, the reduced tocopherol content of the thylakoid membrane is a limiting factor for defensive reactions to photo-oxidative stress
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?
additional information
?
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
NADPH
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
the geranylgeranyl diphosphate reductase message is abundant in chlorophyll-containing tissues and flower organs, but barely detected in the roots and mesocarp of ripening fruits, suggesting that transcription is related to plastid types and maturation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
the geranylgeranyl diphosphate reductase mRNA is abundant in chlorophyll-containing tissues and flower organs, but barely detected in the roots and mesocarp of ripening fruits, suggesting that transcription is related to plastid types and maturation. mRNA is spread thoroughly in leaf cells during the early stages and is located mainly in the palisade of mature leaves, which exhibit higher transcript levels than young ones. Hence, the transcription of geranylgeranyl diphosphate reductase is likely to be regulated during leaf development. Transcription is stimulated by light, but repressed by dark and cold stress. In wounded leaves, the message decreases, but recovers rapidly, whereas in curled leaves, a reduction in gene expression is related to leaf damage intensity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (strain ATCC 33909 / DSM 639 / JCM 8929 / NBRC 15157 / NCIMB 11770)
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (strain ATCC 33909 / DSM 639 / JCM 8929 / NBRC 15157 / NCIMB 11770)
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (strain ATCC 33909 / DSM 639 / JCM 8929 / NBRC 15157 / NCIMB 11770)
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (strain ATCC 33909 / DSM 639 / JCM 8929 / NBRC 15157 / NCIMB 11770)
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (strain ATCC 33909 / DSM 639 / JCM 8929 / NBRC 15157 / NCIMB 11770)
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (strain ATCC 33909 / DSM 639 / JCM 8929 / NBRC 15157 / NCIMB 11770)
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (strain ATCC 33909 / DSM 639 / JCM 8929 / NBRC 15157 / NCIMB 11770)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
47000
calculated from sequence
51680
protein that harbours a transit peptide for cytoplasm-to-chloroplast transport, calculated from sequence
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
?
x * 47000, SDS-PAGE
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
geranylgeranyl reductase expressed in Escherichia coli sequentially catalyzes the reduction of geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll a into phytyl-chlorophyll a as well as the reduction of free geranylgeranyl diphosphate into phytyl diphosphate
the coding region of a truncated CHL P peptide (amino acid residues 50–464) is fused in frame behind the initiation codon into an Escherichia coli expression vector, Chl P expression in CHL P-deficient transgenic plants under two different light intensities
Show AA Sequence (210 entries)
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