Information on EC 1.2.99.7 - aldehyde dehydrogenase (FAD-independent)

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.2.99.7
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
aldehyde dehydrogenase (FAD-independent)
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
an aldehyde + H2O + acceptor = a carboxylate + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
Belongs to the xanthine oxidase family of enzymes. The enzyme from Desulfovibrio sp. contains a molybdenum-molybdopterin-cytosine dinucleotide (MCD) complex and two types of [2Fe-2S] cluster per monomer, but does not contain FAD
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
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redox reaction
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reduction
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
aldehyde:acceptor oxidoreductase (FAD-independent)
Belongs to the xanthine oxidase family of enzymes. The enzyme from Desulfovibrio sp. contains a molybdenum-molybdopterin-cytosine dinucleotide (MCD) complex and two types of [2Fe-2S] cluster per monomer, but does not contain FAD.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9029-07-6
cf. EC 1.2.3.1
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
NCIMB 1349; NCIMB 13491
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
KY 469
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
KY 469
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde + H2O + 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
3-pyridinecarboxylate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
show the reaction diagram
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159% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
acetaldehyde + H2O + 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
acetate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
show the reaction diagram
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?
acetaldehyde + H2O + 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
acetate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
show the reaction diagram
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?
acetaldehyde + H2O + acceptor
acetate + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
acetaldehyde + H2O + benzylviologen
acetate + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
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natural electron aceptor not yet known, the artificial electron acceptors benzylviologen, methylviologen, 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl) and 2,6-dichlorphenol-indophenol have relative activities of 100%, 19%, 5%, and 1.3%, respectively
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?
acetaldehyde + H2O + electron acceptor
acetate + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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?
acetaldehyde + H2O + electron acceptor
acetate + reduced electron acceptor
show the reaction diagram
aldehyde + H2O + acceptor
carboxylate + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
benzaldehyde + 2 ferricyanide + H2O
benzoate + 2 ferrocyanide + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
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156% of activity with 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
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?
benzaldehyde + H2O + 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
benzoate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
show the reaction diagram
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?
benzaldehyde + H2O + 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
benzoate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
show the reaction diagram
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?
benzaldehyde + H2O + 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
benzoate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
show the reaction diagram
benzaldehyde + H2O + benzylviologen
benzoate + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
benzaldehyde + H2O + cytochrome c
benzoate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
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from horse heart, 25% of activity with 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
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?
benzaldehyde + H2O + cytochrome c3
benzoate + reduced cytochrome c3
show the reaction diagram
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from, Desulfovibrio gigas, 20% of activity with 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
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?
benzaldehyde + H2O + electron acceptor
benzoate + reduced electron acceptor
show the reaction diagram
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?
benzaldehyde + H2O + methylene blue
benzoate + reduced methylene blue
show the reaction diagram
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156% of activity with 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
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?
benzaldehyde + H2O + oxidized 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
benzoate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
show the reaction diagram
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?
butyraldehyde + H2O + benzylviologen
butanoate + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
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93% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
formaldehyde + H2O + benzylviologen
formate + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
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16% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
furfural + H2O + benzylviologen
furfurate + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
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77% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
furfuraldehyde + H2O + 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
furfurate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
show the reaction diagram
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27% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
glutaraldehyde + H2O + benzylviologen
glutarate + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
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20% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
glycoaldehyde + H2O + benzylviologen
glycolate + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
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23% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
hexanal + H2O + benzylviologen
hexanoate + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
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6% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
octanal + H2O + benzylviologen
octanoate + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
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93% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
p-anisaldehyde + H2O + benzylviologen
p-anisidic acid + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
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5% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
pentanal + H2O + benzylviologen
pentanoate + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
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9% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
phenylacetaldehyde + H2O + benzylviologen
phenylacetate + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
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31% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
propionaldehyde + H2O + 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
propionate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
show the reaction diagram
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propionaldehyde + H2O + 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
propionate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
show the reaction diagram
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propionaldehyde + H2O + benzylviologen
propionate + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
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117% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
salicylaldehyde + H2O + 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
salicylate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol
show the reaction diagram
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?
salicylaldehyde + H2O + 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
salicylate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
show the reaction diagram
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salicylaldehyde + H2O + benzylviologen
salicylate + reduced benzylviologen
show the reaction diagram
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14% of activity with acetaldehyde
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?
additional information
?
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the enzyme also catalyzes the nitrite reduction with nitric oxide formation in an enzyme-, aldehyde- and nitrite-concentration- dependent manner. The enzyme catalyzes the nitrite reduction to nitric oxide in the presence of an electron donor to the enzyme, substrate (aldehyde) or not (dithionite)
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
additional information
?
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the enzyme also catalyzes the nitrite reduction with nitric oxide formation in an enzyme-, aldehyde- and nitrite-concentration- dependent manner. The enzyme catalyzes the nitrite reduction to nitric oxide in the presence of an electron donor to the enzyme, substrate (aldehyde) or not (dithionite)
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
[2Fe-2S]-center
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the enzyme contains two [2Fe–2S] centers
additional information
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the enzyme contains no FAD
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
K+
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10 mM, 50% activation
Molybdenum
Tungsten
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0.68 tungsten per subunit
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
arsenite
cyanide
competitive reversible inhibitor, 30.9% inhibition at 50 mM
ethylene glycol
mixed-type reversible inhibitor, 21.9% inhibition at 1 mM
glycerol
competitive reversible inhibitor, 52% inhibition at 1 mM
iodoacetate
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5 mM, complete inhibition
KCN
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5 mM, 64% inhibition
methanol
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1 M, 62% inhibition
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.013 - 12.5
acetaldehyde
0.0067 - 20
benzaldehyde
0.55
benzylviologen
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30°C, pH 7.5
30.8
furfural
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30°C, pH 7.5
0.015 - 10.8
propionaldehyde
0.00025
Salicylaldehyde
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25°C, pH 7.6
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.12 - 1.14
acetaldehyde
0.96 - 1.43
benzaldehyde
0.007 - 0.44
propionaldehyde
0.15 - 0.25
Salicylaldehyde
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
8
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broad optimum
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
62000
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2 * 62000, SDS-PAGE
96000
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2 * 96000, SDS-PAGE
100000
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2 * 100000, SDS-PAGE
120000
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gelfiltration, Sephacryl S-300
126000
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gel filtration, Superose 12 HR
200000
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gel filtration
206000
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gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
crystal structure at 2.25 A resolution
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sitting drop vapor diffusion method, using 30% (v/v) 2-propanol, 0.2 M magnesium chloride, and 0.2 M HEPES buffer (pH 7.6)
vapour diffusion on sitting drops using a mixture of purified protein in 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, and a crystallization solution of 30% isopropanol as precipitant and 200 mM MgCl2 as additive in 200 mM HEPES, pH 7.6, growth of crystals at 4°C takes approx. 3 weeks, crystals diffract to 1.28 A
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vapour-diffusion using sitting drops and a reservoir containing 100 mM Hepes, pH 7.5, 200 mM MgCl2 and 30% isopropanol, droplets are prepared by mixing 0.004 ml of a 13 mg/ml protein solution in 10 mM Tris, pH 7.6 with 0.002 ml reservoir solution, single crystals are obtained within 3-6 weeks at 4°C, crystals diffract to 3.0 A
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OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
exposure to air leads to inactivation
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11936
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-30°C, phosphate buffer, no loss of activity after thawing
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
aerobic purification
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DEAE-52, DEAE-Biogel, hydroxylapatite, HPLC
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DEAE-cellulose, Source-15, Superdex 200
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Q-Sepharose, Butyl-Sepharose, DEAE-memsep 1010
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Show AA Sequence (156 entries)
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