Information on EC 1.16.1.7 - ferric-chelate reductase (NADH)

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.16.1.7
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
ferric-chelate reductase (NADH)
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
2 Fe(II)-siderophore + NAD+ + H+ = 2 Fe(III)-siderophore + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
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redox reaction
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reduction
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
ethylene biosynthesis III (microbes)
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iron reduction and absorption
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
Fe(II)-siderophore:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Contains FAD. The enzyme catalyses the reduction of bound ferric iron in a variety of iron chelators (siderophores), resulting in the release of ferrous iron. The plant enzyme is involved in the transport of iron across plant plasma membranes. The enzyme from the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans can also reduce chromate. cf. EC 1.16.1.9, ferric-chelate reductase (NADPH) and EC 1.16.1.10, ferric-chelate reductase [NAD(P)H].
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
122097-10-3
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
pond apple
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
soursop
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Nongda 818
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Nongda 818
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a calcicole species
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a citrus rootstock very sensitive to Fe deficiency
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fragaria sp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain L. cv. Tsukinohikari, wild type and transgenic rice T1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Myrobolan 29C
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
x Prunus persica, GF-677
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
investigation of rootspocks differing in their tolerance to iron deficiency when grown in absence of iron or in presence of bicarbonate. In absence of iron, ferric-chelate reductase activity is stimulated; Prunus davidiana, Cadaman
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
genes FRO1 and FRO2
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
genes FRO1 and FRO2
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
Fragaria sp.
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plants grown in the absence of iron show Fe deficiency symptoms with smaller chlorotic leaves, less biomass, acidification of the nutrient solution, and roots that are smaller and less ramified and that contain a higher content of Cu2+
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2 Fe(II) + 2 EDTA + NAD+ + H+
2 Fe(III)-EDTA + NADH
show the reaction diagram
2 Fe(II) + NAD+
2 Fe(III) + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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chloroplats with 300 micromolar ferrozine and 100 micromolar Fe-EDTA in Hepes-sorbitol buffer, pH 7.3
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?
2 Fe(II)-siderophore + NAD+ + H+
2 Fe(III)-siderophore + NADH
show the reaction diagram
2 Fe2+ + NAD+
2 Fe3+ + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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transgenic FRO6 yeast has higher Fe3+ chelate reductase activity, Fe3+ chelate reductase activity of FRO7-expressing cells does not differ from the basal level observed in the vector-only control cells
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?
4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline-disulfonic acid + Fe(III)-ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid
Fe(II)-tri-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline-disulfonic acid + ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid
show the reaction diagram
NADH + Fe(III)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic complex
NAD+ + ?
show the reaction diagram
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turbo ferric chelate reductase activity of Fe-deficient plants at low pH appears to be different from the constitutive ferric chelate reductase
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?
NADH + Fe3+
NAD+ + Fe2+
show the reaction diagram
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iron deficiency results in a 2fold increase in specific activity
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?
NADH + ferric dicitrate
NAD+ + ?
show the reaction diagram
NADPH + Fe(III)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic complex
NADP+ + ?
show the reaction diagram
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activity with NADPH is 10-20% of the activity with NADH
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?
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2 Fe(II)-siderophore + NAD+ + H+
2 Fe(III)-siderophore + NADH
show the reaction diagram
NADH + Fe3+
NAD+ + Fe2+
show the reaction diagram
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iron deficiency results in a 2fold increase in specific activity
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?
additional information
?
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Cu
Fragaria sp.
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both small contents of Fe and Cu in the plants lead to an overexpression of the gene encoding the enzyme and enhanced FC-R activity in the plants
Fe
Fragaria sp.
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both small contents of Fe and Cu in the plants lead to an overexpression of the gene encoding the enzyme and enhanced FC-R activity in the plants
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Cd2+
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no effect: 0.05 mM CdCl2 or Cd-EDTA in assay medium, pretreatment of 30-60 min, significant decrease of activity
cycloheximide
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NaHCO3
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growth in presence of 10 mM NaHCO3 greatly inhibits enzyme activity
Pb2+
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2 mM in the assay medium, slight decrease in activity, pretreatment of 30-60 min, significant decrease in activity
sulfite
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37.5% inhibtion at 15 mM after 6 h incubation of cells
additional information
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Brij 58
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stimulates
Fe
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FCR is only induced by Fe deficiency
Triton X-100
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stimulates
additional information
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
additional information
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SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.34
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membrane fraction, pH 7.0, 30°C
0.97
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cytoplasmic fraction, pH 7.0, 30°C
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
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turbo ferric chelate reductase activity of Fe-deficient plants at low pH appears to be different from the constitutive ferric chelate reductase
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5 - 8
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pH 5.5: about 35% of maximal activity, pH 8.0: about 50% of maximal activity
additional information
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high pH sensitivity of enzyme, highest activity at apoplastic pH of 4.9, no activity above apoplastic pH of 5.3. Nitrate increases pH value, thus inhibiting enzyme activity, ammonium decreases pH value. Nitrate together with hydrogen carbonate, a combination typical for calcareous soils, has strongest enzyme depressing effect
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
22
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assay at room temperature
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
; isoform AtFRO7
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoforms AtFRO5, AtFRO6
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; isoform AtFRO7
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
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enzyme is subject to posttranscriptional regulation
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
a yeast Fe3+ chelate-reductase gene is fused to the promoter of the Fe-regulated transporter and introduced into rice plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens
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DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, single strand confirmation polymorphism analysis, overview
Fragaria sp.
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expressed as AhFRO1-GFP fusion protein in epidermal cells of Allium cepa; expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BJ2168
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expression in Escherichia coli, infecting tomato roots with the satellite DNAmbeta and cognate virus using Agrobacterium tumefaciens
expression of ferric reductase oxidase FRO6-GFP or FRO7-GFP in yeast
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expression the gene AtFRO6 under the control of a 35S promoter in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi plants using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 for transfection. Ferric reductase activity in leaves of transgenic plants grown under iron-sufficient or iron-deficient conditions is 2.13 and 1.26fold higher than in control plants, respectively. Light-responsive elements within the FRO6 promoter regionmediate gene activation on exposure to light
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gene FRO1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic tree, expression analysis under iron deficient and control conditions; gene FRO2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic tree, expression analysis under iron deficient and control conditions
gene LeFRO1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis from 16 different cultivars, genotyping detects three types of LeFRO1 (LeFRO1MM, LeFRO1Ailsa and LeFRO1Monita) with five amino acid variations at the positions 21, 24, 112, 195 and 582
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genes FRO1 and FRO2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression analysis under iron deficient and control conditions
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transient expression of yeast ferric reductase oxidase FRO6-GFP or FRO7-GFP in Arabidopsis protoplasts, generation of transgenic plants expressing glucuronidase reporter gene fused to the FRO7 promoter, generation of Fro7 mutants missing the Fe(III) chelate reductase
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
both small contents of Fe and Cu in the plants lead to an overexpression of the gene encoding the enzyme and enhanced FC-R activity in the plants
Fragaria sp.
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enzyme content is low in the absence or with high levels of Fe, its highest values occur in roots exposed to a low level of Fe
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enzyme content is very high in carob in the absence of Fe and is decreased sharply even when only a low level of Fe is present in the nutrient solution
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iron deficiency induces the gene responsible for FRO2-like proteins in barley leaves
mRNA of AhFRO1 is only induced by Fe deficiency
nitric oxide acts downstream of auxin to trigger root ferric-chelate reductase activity in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana, signal pathway leading to FCR induction, overview. The induction is suppressed by either polar auxin transport inhibition with 1-naphthylphthalamic acid or NO scavenging with 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, tungstate, or Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
A112X
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modification of this amino acid results in a significant reduction of enzyme activity
additional information
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frd4 mutations reside in cpFtsY, which encodes a component of one of the pathways responsible for the insertion of proteins into the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast. In frd4 mutants, ferric-chelate reductase FRO2 mRNA is expressed normally in the root, but plants do not induce the enzyme under iron deficiency
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture