Information on EC 1.14.19.31 - acyl-lipid (7-3)-desaturase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.14.19.31
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
acyl-lipid (7-3)-desaturase
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REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
a (7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosa-7,10,13,16-tetraenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a (4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16-pentaenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
(2)
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a (7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosa-7,10,13,16-tetraenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a (4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16-pentaenoyl-[glycerolipid] + ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
a (7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-7,10,13,16,19-pentaenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a (4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
(1)
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a (7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-7,10,13,16,19-pentaenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a (4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoyl-[glycerolipid] + ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
docosahexaenoate biosynthesis I (lower eukaryotes)
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
DELTA7 acyl-lipid,ferrocytochrome b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (4,5 cis-dehydrogenating)
The enzymes from several algae introduce a cis double bond at the 4-position in 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids that contain a Delta7 double bond. The enzyme from the fresh water alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii acts on the 16 carbon fatty acid (7Z,10Z,13Z)-hexadeca-7,10,13-trienoate [5]. The enzyme contains an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain that acts as the direct electron donor to the active site of the desaturase, and does not require an external cytochrome.
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
gene CrDELTA4FAD
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene Egd4
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene LMJF_14_1340
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene LMJF_14_1340
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Crypthecodinium cohnii
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Schizochytrium sp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene Old4
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene TpdesK
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
can be classified as DELTA4 desaturase due to its HX3HH motif; gene Tb10.6k15.3610
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
can be classified as DELTA4 desaturase due to its HX3HH motif; gene Tb10.6k15.3610
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
can be classified as DELTA4 desaturase due to its HX3HH motif; gene Tc00.1047053510181.20
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
can be classified as DELTA4 desaturase due to its HX3HH motif; gene Tc00.1047053510181.20
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
enzyme knockdown lines show decreases in the 16:4 and 18:3-9,12,15 acyl groups in lipids, fatty acid profile, overview
metabolism
physiological function
the enzyme is involved in synthesis of the plastid lipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii occuring preferentially as a molecular species containing alpha-linolenic acid 18:3-9,12,15 in the sn-1 position and (4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z)-hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid (16:4) in the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone, fatty acid profile, overview
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
22:4 DELTA7,10,13,16-docosatetraenoic acid + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+
22:5 DELTA4,7,10,13,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
22:5 DELTA7,10,13,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+
22:6 DELTA4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
a (7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosa-7,10,13,16-tetraenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+
a (4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16-pentaenoyl-[glycerolipid] + ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
a (7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-7,10,13,16,19-pentaenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+
a (4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoyl-[glycerolipid] + ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
docosa-7,10,13,16,19-pentaenoic acid + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+
docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
docosa-7,10,13,16-tetraenoic acid + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+
docosa-4,7,10,13,16-pentaenoic acid + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
additional information
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
docosa-7,10,13,16,19-pentaenoic acid + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+
docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
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additional information
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
cytochrome b5
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SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
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the enzyme is expressed during the exponential phase of growth
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
49000
x * 49000, SDS-PAGE
49800
x * 49800, calculated fropm sequence
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
recombinant His-tagged cytochrome b5 domain (residues 48-147) from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) by nickel affinity chromatography
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparison, phylogenetic analysis, recombinant functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HH3
expression in yeast and in Arabidopsis
gene CrDELTA4FAD, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, expression of GFP-tagged enzyme in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts, recombinant expression of the His-tagged cytochrome b5 domain (resdues 48-147) in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
gene Egd4, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic tree, partly codon-optimized version of the cDNA, sequence comparison, recombinant expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVSc1 in endoplasmic reticulum membrane,fatty acid analysis, overview. Expression of GFP-tagged enzyme
gene Old4, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic tree, partly codon-optimized version of the cDNA, sequence comparison, recombinant expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVSc1 in endoplasmic reticulum membrane,fatty acid analysis, overview. Expression of GFP-tagged enzyme, GFP-Old4p does not form aggregates in yeast cells and localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum
gene TpdesK, encoded on chromosome 5, the gene has a single intron, phylogenetic analysis and tree, recombinant expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303A1
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heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brassica juncea respectively. Introduction of the full-length enzyme into Brassica juncea under the control of the 35S promoter results in the production of (4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaeno in leaves when exogenously supplied with (7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-7,10,13,16,19-pentaenoic acid
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
higher growth temperature increases the expression of front-end desaturase genes
Pldes1 expression is 4fold higher during the mid-exponential phase of growth compared to late exponential and stationary phases
the expression is reduced when Pavlova salina is grown at 15°C. The ratio of expression of desaturases in samples grown at 25°C and 20°C, is 5times greater for the DELTA4-desaturase than for the DELTA5-desaturase gene