Information on EC 1.14.13.90 - zeaxanthin epoxidase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.14.13.90
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
zeaxanthin epoxidase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
antheraxanthin + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 = violaxanthin + NAD(P)+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
zeaxanthin + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 = antheraxanthin + NAD(P)+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
redox reaction
reduction
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
carotenoid biosynthesis
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Carotenoid biosynthesis
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Metabolic pathways
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Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
zeaxanthin,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase
A flavoprotein (FAD) that is active under conditions of low light. Along with EC 1.10.99.3, violaxanthin de-epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle, which is involved in protecting the plant against damage by excess light. It will also epoxidize lutein in some higher-plant species.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
149718-34-3
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Amyema miquelii
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Amyema pendulum
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Yolo Wonder
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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TREMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars with different root colour: Blanche demi-longue des Vosges (white), Yellowstone (yellow), Bolero (orange), and Nutrired (red)
TREMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a cryotolerant marine yeast
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Phaeodactylum tricornutum genome contains three copys of ZEP. As compared to the plant ZEPs, the amino acid region covering lipocalin motif I is considerably larger in the diatom ZEP1 and ZEP2 proteins, but not in PtZEP3 and the motif I consensus sequence is not conserved in any of the diatom ZEPs
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Phoradendron dipterum
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Phoradendron emarginatum
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Phoradendron hexastichon
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Phoradendron perrottetii
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Phoradendron piauhyanum
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Phoradendron semivenosum
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Phoradendron tunaeforme
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Phoradendron undulatum
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Phthirusa ovata
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Psittacanthus dichrous
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a desiccation-tolerant red algae
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Pastar
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Struthanthus flexicaulis
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Struthanthus marginatus
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
maize B73 inbred line
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
antheraxanthin + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2
violaxanthin + NAD(P)+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
antheraxanthin + NAD(P)H + O2
violaxanthin + NAD(P)+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
antheraxanthin + NADH + H+ + O2
violaxanthin + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
antheraxanthin + NADPH + H+ + O2
violaxanthin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
zeaxanthin + 2 NAD(P)H + 2 H+ + 2 O2
violaxanthin + 2 NAD(P)+ + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
overall reaction
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-
?
zeaxanthin + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2
antheraxanthin + NAD(P)+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
zeaxanthin + NAD(P)H + O2
antheraxanthin + NAD(P)+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
zeaxanthin + NADH + H+ + O2
antheraxanthin + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
zeaxanthin + NADPH + H+ + O2
antheraxanthin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
antheraxanthin + NAD(P)H + O2
violaxanthin + NAD(P)+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
antheraxanthin + NADH + H+ + O2
violaxanthin + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
antheraxanthin + NADPH + H+ + O2
violaxanthin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
zeaxanthin + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2
antheraxanthin + NAD(P)+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
zeaxanthin + NAD(P)H + O2
antheraxanthin + NAD(P)+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
zeaxanthin + NADH + H+ + O2
antheraxanthin + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
zeaxanthin + NADPH + H+ + O2
antheraxanthin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Ferredoxin
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NAD(P)H
additional information
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
diphenylene iodonium chloride
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IC50: 0.0023 mM
NaBr
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there is a decrease of enzyme activity to 21% of the activity of control thylakoids when incubated once with 2 M NaBr. A second treatment with 2 M NaBr leads to an almost complete inhibition of enzyme activity
octylglucoside
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complete inhibition at 30 mM
additional information
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
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IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0023
diphenylene iodonium chloride
Spinacia oleracea
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IC50: 0.0023 mM
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.4
amino acid sequence calculation
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
constitutive
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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developing endosperm
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
lower enzyme level, constitutive
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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unfertilized ovule
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
constitutive
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
meristem, periderm, and cortex, completely dormant, partly dormant, and completely non-dormant
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
quantitative expression analysis in tuber tissues during dormancy, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
temperature-induced enzyme; temperature-induced enzyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
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sequence analysis establishes the enzyme as a member of the lipocalin family of proteins, a diverse group of proteins that bind small hydrophobic molecules and share a conserved tertiary structure of eight beta-strands forming a barrel configuration
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0 - 4
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there is a slight increase of the enzyme activity after the treatment with freeze-thaw cycles at pH 7.5, while thylakoids frozen and thawed a pH 5.2 show a slight reduction of the enzyme activity
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
there is a slight increase of the enzyme activity after the treatment with freeze-thaw cycles at pH 7.5, while thylakoids frozen and thawed a pH 5.2 show a slight reduction of the enzyme activity
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
DNA and amino acid sequence comparison and analysis, expression analysis, phylogenetic analysis and evolution of lipocalins; DNA and amino acid sequence comparison and analysis, expression analysis, phylogenetic analysis and evolution of lipocalins; DNA and amino acid sequence comparison and analysis, expression analysis, phylogenetic analysis and evolution of lipocalins
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression analysis in tuber tissues during dormancy
expression in Escherichia coli
gene ABA1/ZEP, expression analysis
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gene LeZE, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression analysis, mRNA accumulation of LeZE in the wild-type is not induced by light and temperature but regulated by the diurnal rhythm, expression in transgenic tomato plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 transfection using the 35S-CaMV promoter
genetic mapping of aba1 mutants, complementation of a mutant strain
Polyphyletic analyses of the presence of photoprotective compounds and zeaxanthin epoxidase sequences across a wide representation of the plant kingdom reveals no correlation between the presence of lutein-epoxide and recurrent mutations in sequences, including the duplications. There is an evolutionary trend to increase the content of alpha-tocopherol and to decrease the total amount of violaxanthin-cycle pigments.; Polyphyletic analyses of the presence of photoprotective compounds and zeaxanthin epoxidase ZE sequences across a wide representation of the plant kingdom reveals no correlation between the presence of lutein-epoxide and recurrent mutations in ZE sequences, including the duplications. There is an evolutionary trend to increase the content of alpha-tocopherol and to decrease the total amount of violaxanthin-cycle pigments.
Polyphyletic analyses of the presence of photoprotective compounds and zeaxanthin epoxidase ZE sequences across a wide representation of the plant kingdom reveals no correlation between the presence of lutein-epoxide and recurrent mutations in ZE sequences, including the duplications. There is an evolutionary trend to increase the content of alpha-tocopherol and to decrease the total amount of violaxanthin-cycle pigments.
Polyphyletic analyses of the presence of photoprotective compounds and zeaxanthin epoxidase ZE sequences across a wide representation of the plant kingdom reveals no correlation between the presence of lutein-epoxide and recurrent mutations in ZE sequences, including the duplications. There is an evolutionary trend to increase the content of alpha-tocopherol and to decrease the total amount of violaxanthin-cycle pigments.; Polyphyletic analyses of the presence of photoprotective compounds and zeaxanthin epoxidase ZE sequences across a wide representation of the plant kingdom reveals no correlation between the presence of lutein-epoxide and recurrent mutations in ZE sequences, including the duplications. There is an evolutionary trend to increase the content of alpha-tocopherol and to decrease the total amount of violaxanthin-cycle pigments.
structure and expression of cDNA
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Polyphyletic analyses of the presence of photoprotective compounds and zeaxanthin epoxidase sequences across a wide representation of the plant kingdom reveals no correlation between the presence of lutein-epoxide and recurrent mutations in sequences, including the duplications. There is an evolutionary trend to increase the content of alpha-tocopherol and to decrease the total amount of violaxanthin-cycle pigments.; Polyphyletic analyses of the presence of photoprotective compounds and zeaxanthin epoxidase ZE sequences across a wide representation of the plant kingdom reveals no correlation between the presence of lutein-epoxide and recurrent mutations in ZE sequences, including the duplications. There is an evolutionary trend to increase the content of alpha-tocopherol and to decrease the total amount of violaxanthin-cycle pigments.
Polyphyletic analyses of the presence of photoprotective compounds and zeaxanthin epoxidase ZE sequences across a wide representation of the plant kingdom reveals no correlation between the presence of lutein-epoxide and recurrent mutations in ZE sequences, including the duplications. There is an evolutionary trend to increase the content of alpha-tocopherol and to decrease the total amount of violaxanthin-cycle pigments.
Polyphyletic analyses of the presence of photoprotective compounds and zeaxanthin epoxidase ZE sequences across a wide representation of the plant kingdom reveals no correlation between the presence of lutein-epoxide and recurrent mutations in ZE sequences, including the duplications. There is an evolutionary trend to increase the content of alpha-tocopherol and to decrease the total amount of violaxanthin-cycle pigments.; Polyphyletic analyses of the presence of photoprotective compounds and zeaxanthin epoxidase ZE sequences across a wide representation of the plant kingdom reveals no correlation between the presence of lutein-epoxide and recurrent mutations in ZE sequences, including the duplications. There is an evolutionary trend to increase the content of alpha-tocopherol and to decrease the total amount of violaxanthin-cycle pigments.
transcript level of ZEP2 of Zea mays increases in developing endosperm within 14 days after pollination and decreases afterwards, transcript level of ZEP1 of Zea mays remains low during developement of endosperm; transcript levels of ZEP1 and ZEP2 of Zea mays are highest in leaves, lower in roots and unfertilized ovules and lowest in endosperm and plant embryos; ZEP1 and ZEP2 of Zea mays transcript levels at 20 days after pollination show inverse correlation with seed zeaxanthin levels
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transcript levels are high after 4 weeks after sowing, decrease markedly in 5th week and increase to highest level up to the 14th week after sowing
white and blue light increase mRNA levels of ZEP1, ZEP2 and ZEP3 1 to 8 hours after lights on, red light slightly upregulates transcription of ZEP2 gene, but has no effect on ZEP1 and ZEP3; white and blue light increase mRNA levels of ZEP1, ZEP2 and ZEP3 1 to 8 hours after lights on, red light slightly upregulates transcription of ZEP2 gene, but has no effect on ZEP1 and ZEP3; white and blue light increase mRNA levels of ZEP1, ZEP2 and ZEP3 1 to 8 hours after lights on, red light slightly upregulates transcription of ZEP2 gene, but has no effect on ZEP1 and ZEP3
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
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