Information on EC 1.13.11.71 - carotenoid-9',10'-cleaving dioxygenase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.13.11.71
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
carotenoid-9',10'-cleaving dioxygenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
all-trans-beta-carotene + O2 = all-trans-10'-apo-beta-carotenal + beta-ionone
show the reaction diagram
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
carotenoid cleavage
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NIL
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
all-trans-beta-carotene:O2 oxidoreductase (9',10'-cleaving)
Requires Fe2+. The enzyme catalyses the asymmetric oxidative cleavage of carotenoids. The mammalian enzyme can also cleave all-trans-lycopene.
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
beta-carotene + O2
10'-apo-beta-carotenal + beta-ionone
show the reaction diagram
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?
beta-carotene + O2
10'-apo-carotenal + beta-ionone
show the reaction diagram
beta-cryptoxanthin + O2
beta-apo-10'-carotenal + ?
show the reaction diagram
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main clevage product is beta-apo-10'-carotenal only small amounts of 3-OH-beta-apocarotenal are formed
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?
canthaxanthin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
lycopene + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
additional information
?
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no substrate: lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, or neoxanthin
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INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4-oxo-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-all-trans-retinamide
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
methanol
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addition of methanol to in vitro assays has a stimulatory effect on activity at concentrations up to 25%
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0152 - 0.067
beta-carotene
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0053
beta-carotene
Homo sapiens
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pH 8.0, 37C
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.079
beta-carotene
Homo sapiens
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pH 8.0, 37C
858
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
28
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assay at
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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bcdo2 is expressed in the developing zebrafish
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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endometrial connective tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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ciliary body pigment epithelia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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low abundance of mRNA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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low abundance of mRNA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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endocrine and exocrine pancreas
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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prostate connective tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
predominant expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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low abundance of mRNA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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mucosa of stomach
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
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BCO2 mRNA is detected in cell types that are known to express BCO1. BCO2 is uniquely detected in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, prostate and endometrial connective tissue, and endocrine pancreas
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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protein contains a probable chloroplast targeting sequence of 31 amino acids
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
35
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half-life 326 min
40
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half-life 247 min
45
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half-life 191 min
50
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half-life 84 min
55
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half-life 22 min
ORGANIC SOLVENT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Methanol
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addition of methanol to in vitro assays has a stimulatory effect on activity at concentrations up to 25%
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in Escherichia coli
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expression in Escherichia coli
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
a marked up-regulation of Bcdo2 expression in inguinal white adipose tissue of Bcmo1-null mice is shown, both with control and beta-carotene diet
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture
a nonsense mutation c.196C>T in the beta-carotene oxygenase 2 gene is found to strongly associate with the yellow fat phenotype in sheep. The existence of individuals lacking this mutation, but still demonstrating yellow fat, suggests that additional mutations may cause a similar phenotype in this population. Animals homozygous for the mutation are not reported to suffer from any negative health or development traits, pointing towards a minor role of BCO2 in vitamin A formation
synthesis
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production of beta-apo-10'-carotenal by recombinant enzyme. The optimum pH, temperature, detergent type, and the optimum concentrations of detergent, substrate, and enzyme for beta-apo-10'-carotenal production are 8.0, 37C, Tween 40, 2.4%, 300 mg beta-carotene/l, and 0.25 U/ml, respectively, giving 43 mg beta-apo-10'-carotenal/l after 21 h with a conversion of 14%