Information on EC 1.1.1.16 - galactitol 2-dehydrogenase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.1.1.16
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
galactitol 2-dehydrogenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
galactitol + NAD+ = D-tagatose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Galactose metabolism
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
galactitol:NAD+ 2-oxidoreductase
Also converts other alditols containing an L-threo-configuration adjacent to a primary alcohol group into the corresponding sugars.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9028-23-3
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
gene ladB
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene lad1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene lad1
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
metabolism
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2R)-butanol + NAD+
2-butanone + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(2S)-butanol + NAD+
2-butanone + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(2S,3S)-butanediol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(S)-1,2,6-hexanetriol + NAD+
1,6-dihydroxy-2-hexanone + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-1,2-butanediol + NAD+
1-hydroxy-2-butanone + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-1,2-hexanediol + NAD+
1-hydroxy-2-hexanone + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-1,2-propanediol + NAD+
hydroxyacetone + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
1,2-(S)-pentanediol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
1,2-butanediol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1,2-hexanediol + NAD+
2-oxohexanol + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
1,2-hexanediol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1,2-pentanediol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1,2-propanediol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-hydroxy-2-butanone + NADH
(S)-1,2-butanediol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
2,3-hexandione + NADH
(2R,3S)-hexanediol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
2-hexanol + NAD+
2-hexanone + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-propanol + NAD+
acetone + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-hexanedione + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
reaction product is a complex polymer
-
r
acetoin + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
D-arabitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
D-ribitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
D-ribulose + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
D-threitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate tested
-
?
D-xylulose + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dihydroxyacetone + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
galactitol + NAD+
D-tagatose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
galactitol + NAD+
L-tagatose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
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r
galactitol + NAD+
L-tagatose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
galactitol + NAD+
L-xylo-3-hexulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
galactitol + NAD+
tagatose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
glycerol + NAD+
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
hydroxyacetone + NADH
(S)-1,2-propanediol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-arabitol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
L-arabitol + NAD+
L-ribulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-arabitol + NAD+
L-xylulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
L-erythrulose + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-glucitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-iditol + NAD+
L-sorbose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
meso-erythritol + NAD+
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
sorbitol + NAD+
D-fructose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
xylitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
xylitol + NAD+
L-xylulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
D-arabitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
D-ribitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
D-ribulose + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
D-threitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate tested
-
?
D-xylulose + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
galactitol + NAD+
D-tagatose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
galactitol + NAD+
L-tagatose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
galactitol + NAD+
L-tagatose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
galactitol + NAD+
L-xylo-3-hexulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
galactitol + NAD+
tagatose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
L-arabitol + NAD+
L-ribulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-arabitol + NAD+
L-xylulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
L-erythrulose + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-glucitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-iditol + NAD+
L-sorbose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
sorbitol + NAD+
D-fructose + NADH
show the reaction diagram
xylitol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
xylitol + NAD+
L-xylulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Mn2+
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1 mM required for optimal activity
Ni2+
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25% activation at 1 mM
additional information
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activity of GatDH is strictly dependent on the presence of divalent metal ions
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2,2'-dipyridyl
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13% inhibition at 1 mM, restored by addition of 2 mM MgCl2
EDTA
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68% inhibition at 1 mM, restored by addition of 2 mM MgCl2
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.5
(S)-1,2,6-hexanetriol
-
pH 6.5, 35C
49
(S)-1,2-butanediol
-
pH 6.5, 35C
1.4
(S)-1,2-hexanediol
-
pH 6.5, 35C
196
(S)-1,2-Propanediol
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pH 6.5, 35C
0.2
1,2-hexanediol
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-
26
1-hydroxy-2-butanone
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pH 6.5, 35C
1.4
2,3-Hexanedione
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pH 6.5, 35C
4.2
3,4-hexanedione
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pH 6.5, 35C
85
D-threitol
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48
dihydroxyacetone
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22 - 240
galactitol
202
Hydroxyacetone
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pH 6.5, 35C
1 - 55
L-arabitol
144
L-erythrulose
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-
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4
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reduction of acetoin
10.5
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1,2-hexanediol oxidation
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
110000
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 26657, MALDI-TOF-MS
homotetramer
tetramer
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4 * 28000, SDS-PAGE
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
purified recombinant enzyme, free or with bound 1,2-pentanediol or meso-erythritol, hanging drop vapour diffusion method, 0.001 ml of 0.45 mM protein with 1 mM NAD+ or NADH, in 20 mM Bis-Tris, pH 6.5, is mixed with 0.001 ml of reservoir solution containing 100 mM MES, pH 5.5-5.9, 200 mM MgCl2, and 10-20% w/v methoxy poly(ethylene glycol), equilibration against 1 ml reservoir solution, 1 week, X-ray diffraction structure determnination and analysis at 1.25-195 A resolution
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pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.5
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63% of the reduction activity
389404
9
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81% of the oxidation activity
389404
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
37
-
50% loss of activity after 8 days
50
-
50% loss of activity after 12 min
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
sucrose stabilizes enzyme preparation
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STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20C, 5% loss of activity within 5 months
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4C, 20 mM Bis-Tris, pH 6.5, 1 mM MgCl2, 30% sucrose, stable for 3 months
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
partial
recombinant C-terminally His6-tagged LadB from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN.PK2-1D by nickel affinity chromatography
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recombinant His(6)-tagged GatDH from Escherichia coli strain BL21GOLD(DE3) by use of Co2+-IDA functionalized Fe2O3 nanoparticles, purification and immobilization method, overview
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recombinant His-tagged enzyme from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) by nickel affinity chromatography and gel filtration
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recombinant His6-tagged GatDH from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), by nickel affinity chromatography the tag is cleaved off, followed by dialysis and gel filtration
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to homogeneity, chromatography steps
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli strain BL21GOLD(DE3)
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expression of His-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
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expression of His6-tagged GatDH in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
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gene lad1, expression of C-terminally His6-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
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gene ladB, orf JGI183900, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression of C-terminally His6-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), functional expression of gene ladB under the lac promoter, functional co-expression of Aspergillus niger wild-type and C-terminally His6-tagged LadB and LadA, encoding L-arabitol dehydrogenae, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN.PK2-1D
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
gene lad1 is induced in response to L-arabinose, D-galactose, and galactitol
gene ladB is induced in response to D-galactose and galactitol
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
synthesis